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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sēmi-   'half, semi-'

Semantic Field: Half


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sām- pfx semi- RPN
  sām-wīs adj dull, simple, foolish, lit. half-wise ASD
Middle English: hemi- pfx hemi- W7
  samblind adj sand-blind W7
  sand-blind adj sand-blind W7
  semi- pfx semi- W7
English: hemi- pfx half AHD/W7
  Samwise prop.n simple hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sand-blind adj purblind, half-blind, having poor eyesight AHD/W7
  semi- pfx half AHD/W7
  sesqui- pfx one and a half AHD/W7
  sesquipedal adj sesquipedalian AHD
  sesquipedalian adj one and a half feet tall/long AHD
Old Saxon: sām- pfx semi- RPN
Old High German: sāmi- pfx semi- RPN
German: semi- pfx semi- LRC
Latin: hēmi- pfx hemi- W7
  sēm(i)- pfx semi- RPN
  sēmis n half (of anything) RPN
Homeric Greek: ἡμι- pfx hemi- LRC
  ἥμισυ n.neut half LRC
  ἥμισυς adj half LRC
Greek: ἡμῖ- pfx hemi- RPN
  ἥμῖσυς adj/n half RPN
Sanskrit: sāmí adv halfway, incompletely RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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