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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sent-   'to send, go, choose direction; to sense'

Semantic Fields: to Go; to Sense, Perceive; Sense


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sēt n road, path W7
Old English: sendan, sende, sened vb.wk.I to send LRC
  sīð n.masc road, voyage, journey LRC
Middle English: as(s)enten vb to assent W7/CDC
  consenten vb to consent W7
  dissenten vb to dissent W7
  senden vb to send W7
  senten vb to scent W7
  sentence n sentence W7
English: assent vb.intrans to agree, concur AHD/W7
  consent vb.intrans to accord in opinion/sentiment AHD/W7
  dissent vb.intrans to withhold assent AHD/W7
  godsend n needed thing, desirable event AHD/W7
  presentiment n premonition, feeling that something will/is about to happen AHD/W7
  resent vb.trans to feel/express/exhibit indignant displeasure at AHD/W7
  scent vb to smell, sense with olfactory organs AHD/W7
  send, sent vb.wk to cause to go AHD/W7
  sense n import, signification, meaning intended/conveyed AHD/W7
  sense vb.trans to perceive, be(come) aware of W7
  sentence n opinion AHD/W7
  sentient adj responsive to/conscious of sense impressions AHD/W7
  sentiment n predilection, thought/judgment/attitude prompted by feeling AHD/W7
  sentinel n sentry, one who guards/watches AHD/W7
  widdershins adv counterclockwise, in wrong/contrary/left-handed direction AHD/W7
Old Frisian: senda vb to send ASD
  sinna vb to think, ponder RPN
Old Saxon: sendian vb to send ASD
  sīð n.masc way, journey; time ASD
  sīð-wōrig adj lit. travel-weary ASD
Middle Low German: weddersinnes adv widdershins W7
Old High German: sendan/sentan vb to send W7/ASD
  sin n sense, mind RPN
  sind n.masc way, path; place, office ASD
German: Gesandte n.masc envoy, minister, ambassador LRC
  senden vb to send LRC
  Sinn n.masc sense, mind, thought RPN
Old Norse: senda, sendad vb to send LRC
  sinn n.neut time, occasion LRC
Danish: sind(s) n time(s) ASD
Gothic: sandjan vb to send ASD
  sinþ(s) n time, occasion ASD
Latin: adsentiō, adsentīre vb to assent CDC/ELD
  assentiō, assentīre vb to assent W7
  assentor, assentārī vb.dep to approve, give assent W7
  cōnsentiō, cōnsentīre vb to agree, consent W7
  dissentiō, dissentīre vb to disagree, dissent W7
  praesentiō, praesentīre vb to feel/perceive beforehand W7
  sēnsa, sēnsōrum ideas, perceptions LRC
  sensus, sensūs n.masc sense, feeling, perception RPN
  sentens, sententis vb.ptc thinking, believing W7
  sententia, sententiae n.fem sentence: feeling, opinion, conversation LRC
  sentiens, sentientis adj/vb.ptc feeling, sensing W7
  sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum vb to feel, think, sense RPN
Medieval Latin: sentimentum n.neut sentiment, predilection W7
Old French: as(s)enter vb to assent W7/CDC
  ressentir vb to feel, resent, be emotionally sensitive to W7
  sentence n.fem sentence, decision of judge, punishment for crime W7
  sentir vb to sense, feel W7
Middle French: pressentiment n.masc presentiment W7
  pressentir vb to have a presentiment W7
  sens n.masc sense, feeling, sensation, perception W7
  sentinelle n.fem guard W7
  sentir vb to sense, feel, smell W7
French: assentir vb to assent CDC
  pressentiment n.masc presentiment, premonition W7
  ressentir vb to be emotionally sensible W7
  sentiment n.masc sentiment W7
Old Italian: sentina n.fem vigilance W7
  sentinella n.fem guard W7
  sentire vb to sense W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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