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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. seu-, seə- : sū-   'sop, soup, juice, liquid'

Semantic Fields: to Drink; to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: súgid vb to suck RPN
Old English: sēaw n.neut juice, liquid RPN
  sīcan/sȳcan vb.wk to suckle ASD
  socian vb.wk to soak ASD
  sol n.neut mud, mire, slime IEW
  Sol-mōnaþ prop.n.masc February, lit. mire-month ASD
  sopp(e) n sop W7/ASD
  sūcan/sūgan vb.str to suck RPN/ASD
  sūpan/suppan vb.str to sup, sip, taste, swallow RPN/ASD
Middle English: sippen vb to sip W7
  soken vb to soak W7
  soppe n sop W7
  souken vb to suck W7
  soupen vb to sip, sup W7
  suppen vb to sup W7
English: hyetal adj re: rain, rainy region AHD
  isohyet n line on map/chart separating different rainfall areas AHD/W7
  prosciutto n aged dry-cured spiced ham AHD
  sip vb to take small drink/draft AHD/W7
  soak vb to steep in liquid AHD/W7
  soggy adj wet, soaked, sodden, waterlogged W7
  So(l)math prop.n Shire calendar's February in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sop n food dipped/steeped in liquid AHD/W7
  sopaipilla n crisp puffy deep-fried pastry AHD
  soup n liquid food AHD/W7
  soup vb.trans to increase power/efficiency of AHD/W7
  succulent adj juicy, full of juice AHD/W7
  suck vb to draw (liquid) into mouth AHD/W7
  suckle vb to nurse, give suck W7
  suction n sucking AHD/W7
  suctorial adj adapted for sucking AHD/W7
  sup vb to take/drink in gulps/swallows AHD/W7
  sup vb.intrans to eat supper AHD/W7
  supper n dinner, evening meal LRC
Dutch: zuigen vb to suck LRC
  zuipen vb to sup, drink, quaff ASD
Middle Low German: sane n cream LRC
Low German: sippen vb to sip W7
Old High German: sol n mire ASD
  sou n.neut juice; drug, potion ASD
  sūfan vb to sup, sip, drink, gulp down RPN
  sūgan vb to suck RPN
German: Sahne n.fem cream LRC
  saufen vb to sup, drink ASD
  säugen vb to suckle TLL
  saugen vb to suck, absorb LRC
  süffeln vb to sip LRC
  Suppe n.fem soup LRC
Old Norse: soppa n sop, soup W7
Old Icelandic: súga vb to suck RPN
  súpa vb to sup, sip, drink RPN
Icelandic: saggi n.masc moistness ASD
  s(j)ūga vb to suck ASD
  soppa n sop ASD
  söggr adj dank, soggy ASD
Danish: suge vb to suck LRC
Swedish: suga vb to suck LRC
Latin: sagīmen n fat, lard LRC
  sagīna n.fem fat, stuffing, fattening CLD
  suculentus vb.ptc succulent W7
  sūcus n.masc sap, juice RPN
  sūgō, sūgere vb to suck RPN
Late Latin: suctio, suctionis n.fem suction W7
New Latin: suctorius adj suctorial W7
Old French: saim n fat LRC
  sain n fat LRC
  soupe n.fem sop, soup W7
  souper n.masc supper W7
Italian: prosciutto n prosciutto AHD
Old Church Slavonic: sъsǫ, sъsati vb to suck RPN
Albanian: shí n.masc rain IEW
Homeric Greek: ὑετός n rain, shower LRC
  ὕω vb to rain LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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