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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. seu-, seu̯ə-, sū̆-   'to bear (a child); son'

Semantic Fields: to Bear (of Mother); Son

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: sunu n.masc son LRC
Middle English: sone n son W7
English: Anson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Hamson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  son n human male offspring AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: son/sun(u) n.masc son ASD
Dutch: zoon n son TLL
Old Saxon: suno/sunu n.masc son ASD
Old Low German: suno/sun(u) n.masc son ASD
Old High German: sun(u) n.masc son ASD
German: Sohn n.masc son LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: sonr n.masc son LRC
Danish: søn n son TLL
Swedish: son n son TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: sunus n.str.masc son LRC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: sūnùs n.masc son LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: synъ n.masc son LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: υἱός n.masc son LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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