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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: si̯ū-, sīu̯-   'to sew'

Semantic Field: to Sew


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sēam n.masc seam ASD
  seowian/siwian/sēowan vb.wk to sew ASD
Middle English: seem n seam W7
  sewen vb to sew W7
English: accouter vb.trans to fit out, provide with equipment/furnishings AHD/W7
  couture n business of designing/making/selling women's clothing AHD/W7
  Hymen prop.n god of marriage (Greek mythology) AHD/W7
  hymen n mucous membrane partly closing vagina orifice AHD/W7
  Kamasutra prop.n Sanskrit treatise re: love/pleasure AHD
  seam n joining of pieces (of cloth/leather) by sewing AHD/W7
  sew vb to unite/fasten by stitches of flexible thread/filament AHD/W7
  sewn vb.past.ptc sewed LRC
  subulate adj linear/tapering to fine point AHD/W7
  sutra n precept summarizing Vedic teaching AHD/W7
  suture n strand/fiber for sewing parts of living body AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sām n seam ASD
  sia vb to sew ASD
Old High German: saum n seam ASD
  siula n awl W7
  siuwan/siuwen vb to sew ASD/W7
Icelandic: saumr n seam ASD
  sȳja vb to sew ASD
Gothic: siujan vb to sew LRC
Latin: consuo, consuere vb to sew together W7
  consutus vb.ptc sewn together W7
  hymen n.masc marriage; membrane W7
  subula n.fem awl W7
  suō, suere, suī, sūtus vb to sew, stitch W7
  sutura n.fem seam, suture W7
Vulgar Latin: consutura n.fem seam W7
Late Latin: hymen n.neut wedding; membrane W7
Old French: acoustrer vb to equip, arrange, accouter AHD
  cousture n.fem seam, sewing W7
Middle French: acoustrer vb to dress absurdly W7
  costure n.fem seam W7
  suture n.fem seam, suture W7
French: accoutrer vb to accouter, dress absurdly W7
  couture n.fem seam, sewing, needlework W7
Lithuanian: siūti vb to sew LRC
Old Church Slavonic: šijǫ vb to sew LRC
Greek: Ὑμήν prop.n.masc Hymen LRC
  ὑμήν n.masc hymen, membrane, thin skin AHD
Hittite: shummanza(n) n rope LRC
Sanskrit: sī́vyati vb to sew LRC
  sūtra n string, thread; sutra, string of precepts W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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