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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sk̑āi-, sk̑əi- : sk̑ī-   'to shine/shimmer dully; shadow'

Semantic Fields: to Shine, Glisten; Shade, Shadow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Hāmtūn-scīr prop.n.fem Hampshire LRC
  scim(e)rian vb to shimmer W7/ASD
  scīnan, scān/scēan, scinon, scīnen vb.str to shine W7/ASD
  scīr n.fem shire, office, district LRC
  scīr-gerēfa n.masc sheriff, lit. shire-reeve ASD
Middle English: schimeren vb to shimmer W7
  shinen vb to shine W7
  shire n shire W7
  shirreve n sheriff W7
  stanselen vb to ornament with shining colors W7
English: gegenschein n faint light on celestial sphere opposite sun AHD/W7
  moonshine n moonlight W7
  sciaenoid adj re: fishes including drums/croakers AHD
  scintilla n trace, iota, minute amount AHD
  scintillate vb to spark, emit sparks AHD/W7
  sciurid adj re: rodents including squirrels/related mammals AHD
  sheriff n judicial official of shire/county W7
  shimmer vb to glimmer, shine with fitful/tremulous light AHD/W7
  shine, shone vb.str to emit light AHD/W7
  Shire prop.n hobbit land in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  shire n county, administrative subdivision W7
  Shire-moot prop.n Shire meeting in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Shirriff prop.n sheriff in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  skiagram n picture/photograph of shadows/outlines AHD
  skiascope/sciascope n ophthalmoscopic mirror employed in shadow-test AHD/CDC
  stencil n perforated material through which ink/paint is imprinted on surface AHD/W7
  tinsel n thread/strip/sheet of metal with sparkling/glittering appearance AHD/W7
Old Frisian: skīna vb to shine ASD
Dutch: schemeren vb to shimmer ASD
  schijnen vb to shine LRC
Old Saxon: skīnan vb to shine ASD
Old High German: scīra n care, business, management W7
  skīnan/scīnan vb to shine W7/ASD
German: Gegenschein n.masc gegenschein W7
  Schein n.masc shine W7
  scheinen vb to shine LRC
  schimmern vb to shimmer ASD
Old Norse: skína vb to shine, gleam LRC
Icelandic: skína vb to shine ASD
Danish: skinne vb to shine LRC
Swedish: skimma/skimra vb to shimmer TLL/ASD
  skin(n)a vb to shine TLL
Gothic: skeinan vb to shine ASD
Latin: scintilla n.fem spark W7
  scintillatus vb.ptc that sparkles W7
  scintillo, scintillāre vb to sparkle W7
Vulgar Latin: stincilla n.fem spark W7
Middle French: estancele n.fem spark W7
  estanceler vb to sparkle W7
  estincelle n.fem spark, glitter W7
  étincelle n.fem spark, glitter, spangle W7
Latvian: seja n.fem face LRC
Old Church Slavonic: sijati, sijajǫ, sijaješi vb to shine, make shine LRC
Greek: σκηνή n.fem tent LRC
  skia n.fem shadow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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