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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: skeub-, skeubh-, skeug-   'to shove, move, shoot, throw'

Semantic Fields: to Move; to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sc(e)oh adj shy IEW/ASD
  sc(e)op n.masc scop W7/ASD
  scofl n.fem shovel W7
  scūfan/scēufan/scēofan vb.str to shove, thrust away W7/ASD
  scyhhan vb to scare, frighten away IEW
Middle English: schey adj shy W7
  scof n scoff W7
  shovel n shovel W7
  shoven vb to shove W7
English: scoff n gibe, expression of scorn/contempt/derision AHD/W7
  scop n bard, poet AHD/W7
  scuff vb to shuffle, walk without lifting feet AHD/W7
  scuffle vb.intrans to struggle close together with disorder/confusion AHD/W7
  shove vb to push along AHD/W7
  shovel n broad scoop/blade with handle to lift/throw material AHD/W7
  shovel vb to dig/lift/throw with shovel W7
  shuffle vb to jumble, mix in confused mass AHD/W7
  shy adj timid, fearful IEW
Old Frisian: skof n scoff, mockery W7
  skūva vb to shove, thrust ASD
Dutch: schoffel n.fem shovel ASD
  schop n shovel TLL
Old High German: sc(h)of n scop W7/ASD
  scioban/sciuban vb to shove, push W7/ASD
  sciuhen vb to scare, frighten away W7
  scūfla/scūvala n shovel W7/ASD
German: Schaufel n.fem shovel ASD
  schaufeln vb to shovel LRC
  scheuchen vb to scare, frighten away IEW
  schieben vb to shove, push LRC
  Schub n.masc shove, push, thrust LRC
Icelandic: skop n railing, mocking ASD
  skýfa vb.wk to shove, drive, push ASD
Danish: skof n scoff, jest W7
  skovl n shovel TLL
Swedish: skuffa vb to shove, push W7
  skyffel n shovel TLL
Gothic: *af-skiuban vb to shove/push away GED
  skiuban vb to shove, thrust ASD
Old Slavic: skubati vb to tear W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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