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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)lēg- : (s)ləg-, and (s)leg-   'weak, feeble, languid'

Semantic Field: Weak, Infirm

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: sleac adj slack W7
Middle English: lachesse n laches W7
  languishen vb to languish W7
  lax adj lax W7
  lessour n lessor W7
  lusch adj lush; soft, tender W7
  relaxen vb to relax, make less compact W7
  reles n relish W7
  relesen vb to release W7
  slak adj slack W7
English: algolagnia n pleasure in inflicting/suffering pain AHD/W7
  catalectic adj lacking syllable at end, ending in imperfect foot AHD/W7
  laches n negligence in observance of duty/opportunity AHD/W7
  lagomorph n gnawing mammal: rabbit, hare, pika AHD/W7
  languid adj weak, drooping/flagging (as if) from exhaustion AHD/W7
  languish vb.intrans to be/become weak/feeble/enervated AHD/W7
  lax adj loose, open AHD/W7
  lease vb.trans to let, grant by lease AHD/W7
  lessor n one who conveys by lease AHD/W7
  lush adj producing luxuriant foliage AHD/W7
  relax vb to slacken, make less tense/rigid AHD/W7
  release vb.trans to free from restraint/confinement/servitude AHD/W7
  relish n characteristic taste/flavor AHD/W7
  slack adj negligent, without care/dispatch/diligence AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: laken n sheet TLL
Old High German: lahhan n sheet, cloth, garment KDW
  slah adj slack W7
German: Laken n sheet TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: līn-lak n linen sheet KNW
Danish: lagen n sheet TLL
Swedish: lakan n sheet TLL
Italic  
Latin: langueo, languēre vb to be weak, languid W7
  languidus adj languid W7
  languo, languēre vb to languish W7
  laxō, laxāre vb to loosen, slacken W7
  laxus adj lax W7
  relaxō, relaxāre vb to relax, loosen W7
Vulgar Latin: langueo, languere vb to languish W7
Late Latin: catalecticus adj verse with missing syllable(s) W7
New Latin: algolagnia n.fem algolagnia W7
Old French: laissier vb to leave, let go W7
  reles n.masc something left behind, release W7
  relessier vb to relax W7
Anglo-French: lesser vb to lease W7
  lessour n.masc lessor, landlord W7
Middle French: languide adj languishing W7
  languir vb to languish W7
  laschesse n.fem cowardice; lack of scrupulousness re: deadlines W7
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: λαγωός n.masc hare LRC
  λήγω vb to stop, cease, abate LRC
Attic: λαγώς n.masc hare LRC
Greek: κατα-λήγω vb to leave off LRC
  katalēktikos adj verse with missing syllable(s) W7
  lagneia n.fem lust W7
  lagnos adj lustful AHD

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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