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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: smē-, smeī-, sm-ei-   'to rub, smear'

Semantic Field: to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: smītan, smāt, smiton, smiten vb.str to smite W7/ASD
Middle English: immaculat adj immaculate W7
  maculaten vb to maculate W7
  maille n mail W7
  smiten vb to smite W7
  tramayle n trammel W7
English: chylomicron n emulsified fat formed during digestion AHD
  immaculate adj pure, having no stain/blemish AHD/W7
  mackle n blur/double impression on printed sheet AHD/W7
  macle n twin crystal AHD/W7
  macula n spot, blotch, macule AHD/W7
  maculate vb.trans to spot, speckle AHD/W7
  macule n patch of skin changed in color AHD/W7
  mail n armor made from metal links/plates AHD/W7
  maillot n tights for dancers/gymnasts AHD/W7
  maquette n small preliminary model AHD/W7
  maquis n thick scrubby Mediterranean underbrush AHD/W7
  mica n colored/transparent silicate mineral AHD/W7
  micr(o)- pfx small, tiny, minute AHD
  microfiche n card/sheet of microfilm AHD
  microfilm n photographic record of reduced-size image(s) W7
  micron n unit of length: millionth of meter AHD/W7
  omicron n 15th letter of Greek alphabet AHD
  smite, smote, smitten vb.str to strike sharply/heavily AHD/W7
  trammel n net for catching birds/fish AHD/W7
Old High German: bismīzan vb to defile W7
  masca n mesh W7
Old Norse: smár adj small, little LRC
Latin: immaculatus adj pure, immaculate W7
  macula, maculae n.fem stain, spot LRC
  maculatus vb.ptc stained, spotted, dirty W7
  maculō, maculāre vb to stain, dirty W7
  mica n.fem grain, crumb W7
  mitto, mittere vb to send, let go W7
Late Latin: tremaculum n.neut net W7
New Latin: micron n.neut micron: unit of length W7
Middle French: maille n.fem mail W7
  tremail n.masc net W7
French: macle n.masc one lozenge surrounding another (heraldic paintings) W7/R1
  macule n.fem stain, spot W7
  maculé adj stained, spotted W7
  maillot n maillot W7
  maquette n maquette W7
  maquis n maquis W7
Homeric Greek: (σ)μῑκρός adj small, little LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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