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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)mei-, smeu-   'to smile'

Semantic Field: to Laugh, Smile


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sme(a)rcian vb.wk to smirk, smile W7/ASD
  smerian vb to laugh W7
Middle English: mervel n marvel W7
  miracle n miracle W7
  mirour n mirror W7
  smilen vb to smile W7
  smirken vb to smirk W7
English: admire vb.trans to marvel at AHD/W7
  comity n courteous code of behavior AHD/W7
  marvel n something causing wonder/astonishment AHD/W7
  miracle n extraordinary event manifesting God's supernatural work AHD/W7
  mirage n optical reflection from heated air near ground AHD/W7
  mirror n smooth/polished substance (e.g. glass) that reflects images AHD/W7
  Mirrormere prop.n glassy lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  smile vb to show pleasure/amusement via facial expression AHD/W7
  smirk vb.intrans to simper, smile in affected manner AHD/W7
Old Latin: cosmis adj courteous W7
Latin: admiror, admirari vb to admire W7
  comis adj courteous W7
  comitas, comitatis n.fem courtesy, friendliness W7
  mirabilia marvels W7
  mirabilis adj wonderful W7
  miraculum n.neut marvel W7
  mīror, mīrārī vb.dep to wonder W7
Old French: amirer vb to admire AHD
  merveille n.fem marvel W7
  miracle n.masc miracle W7
  mirer vb to look at oneself W7
  mirour n.masc mirror W7
Middle French: admirer vb to admire W7
French: admirer vb to admire AHD
  mirage n.masc mirage W7
  mirer vb to see in a mirror W7
Latvian: smieties, smejos, smējos vb to laugh LRC
Sanskrit: smayate vb to smile W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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