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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: smeit-, smit-   'to throw'

Semantic Field: to Throw

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: hlāfmæsse/hlāfmesse n.fem Lammas, lit. loaf-mass W7/ASD
  mæsse/messe n.fem mass W7/ASD
Middle English: admitten vb to admit W7
  Christemasse prop.n Christmas W7
  committen vb to commit W7
  compromise n compromise W7
  Lammasse prop.n Lammas W7
  martinmasse n Martinmas W7
  mass(e) n mass W7
  mes n mess W7
  message n message W7
  mychelmesse n Michaelmas W7
  omitten vb to omit W7
  premisse n premise W7
  promis n promise W7
  remitten vb to remit W7
  submitten vb to submit W7
  surmisen vb to surmise, accuse W7
  transmitten vb to transmit W7
English: admit vb to permit, allow scope for AHD/W7
  Christmas prop.n December 25, lit. Christ mass AHD/W7
  commit vb to entrust, put into charge/trust AHD/W7
  compromise n process/result of settlement by consent/arbitration AHD/W7
  demit vb to dismiss AHD/W7
  dismiss vb.trans to cause/permit to leave AHD/W7
  emit vb.trans to give/throw off/out (e.g. light) AHD/W7
  intermit vb to discontinue, cause to cease (at intervals) AHD/W7
  intromit vb.trans to insert, send/put in AHD/W7
  Lammas prop.n mass on August 1 AHD/W7
  Martinmas prop.n November 11, lit. Martin's mass AHD/W7
  mass n sequence of prayers/ceremonies forming eucharistic office AHD/W7
  mess n quantity of food AHD/W7
  message n communication in speech/writing/signals AHD/W7
  Michaelmas prop.n archangel Michael's mass (September 29) LRC
  missile adj able to be thrown/projected to strike distant target AHD/W7
  mission n act/instance of sending AHD/W7
  missive n letter, written message AHD
  omit vb.trans to leave out/unmentioned AHD/W7
  permit vb to consent to expressly/formally AHD/W7
  premise n proposition antecedently supposed/proved as basis of argument/inference AHD/W7
  pretermit vb.trans to omit, let pass without notice/mention AHD/W7
  promise n declaration re: doing something AHD/W7
  remit vb to release from guilt/penalty AHD/W7
  submit vb to yield to authority/governance AHD/W7
  surmise vb.trans to guess, infer/imagine on slight grounds AHD/W7
  transmit vb to forward, send/transfer to another person/place AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: messa/missa n mass ASD
Middle High German: messe n mass ASD
German: Messe n mass ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: messa n mass ASD
Italic  
Latin: admitto, admittere vb to send, let loose W7
  committere vb.ptc to connect, entrust W7
  compromissum n.neut mutual agreement W7
  compromissus vb.ptc mutually agreed W7
  compromitto, compromittere vb to promise mutually W7
  dimissus vb.ptc sent forth/away W7
  dimitto, dimittere vb to send forth/away W7
  ēmittō, ēmittere, ēmīsī, ēmīssum vb to send out LRC
  intermitto, intermittere vb to intermit W7
  intromitto, intromittere vb to send/allow in W7
  missa vb.ptc.fem dismissed, sent away W7
  missilis adj possible to throw W7
  missio n.fem act of sending W7
  missus vb.ptc sent away W7
  mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum vb to send, give, let go LRC
  omitto, omittere vb to omit, forget W7
  permitto, permittere vb to permit, let through W7
  praemissus vb.ptc sent first/ahead W7
  praemitto, praemittere vb to place ahead W7
  praeter adv/prep beyond, past, by W7
  praetermitto, praetermittere vb to omit, pass by W7
  promissum n.neut promise W7
  promissus vb.ptc promised W7
  promitto, promittere vb to promise, send forth W7
  remitto, remittere vb to send back W7
  submitto, submittere vb to lower, submit W7
  supermitto, supermittere vb to throw on W7
  transmitto, transmittere vb to transmit W7
Vulgar Latin: messa n.fem dismissal at end of religious service W7
Late Latin: missus n.masc course at meal W7
  missus vb.ptc sent W7
Medieval Latin: missaticum n.neut message W7
New Latin: missio, missionis n.fem religious mission W7
Old French: a(d)mettre vb to admit AHD
  mes n.masc course at meal W7
  message n.masc message W7
Middle French: compromis n.masc compromise W7
  demettre vb to dismiss W7
  prémisse n.fem assumption in argument W7
  surmetre vb to surmise, throw on W7
  surmis vb.ptc surmised, thrown on W7
Albanian  
Albanian: mision n.masc mission LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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