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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sneigh-   'to snow; snow'

Semantic Field: Snow (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: snechti snow LRC
  snige n rain, drop LRC
  snigid vb to snow, precipitate LRC
Welsh: nyf n snow LRC
  nyfio vb to snow LRC
Old English: snāw n.masc snow W7
  snīwan vb.wk to snow ASD
Middle English: snow n snow W7
English: neve n partially compacted granular snow at glacier's upper end AHD/W7
  nival adj snowy, in/under snow AHD/CDC
  niveous adj snowy, resembling snow AHD
  snow n (small white crystals of) frozen water vapor AHD/W7
  snow vb to fall as/like snow W7
  Snowbourn prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Snowmane prop.n Theoden's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: sneew n snow TLL
Old Saxon: snēu n snow ASD
Old High German: snēo n snow W7
  snīwan vb to snow LRC
German: Schnee n.masc snow LRC
  schneien vb to snow LRC
Old Norse: snœr/snjār/snjōr n snow LRC
Icelandic: snivinn vb to snow ASD
  snjór n snow ASD
Danish: sne n snow TLL
Swedish: snö n snow TLL
Gothic: snáiws n.str.masc snow LRC
Latin: nivit vb.impers to snow LRC
  nix, nivis n.fem snow W7
Old Prussian: snaygis n snow LRC
Lithuanian: sniẽgas n snow LRC
  sniẽgti vb to snow LRC
Latvian: snìegs n snow LRC
Old Church Slavonic: snĕgŭ n snow LRC
Russian: snég n snow LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: νίφα n.acc snow LRC
Homeric Greek: νῐφάς n.fem ice, snow(flake) LRC
Avestan: snaēžaiti vb to snow LRC
Prakrit: siṇeha n snow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
impers=impersonal (verb)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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