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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: snēu- : snū-, and snĕu-   'to turn, bind, attach; band, sinew'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Bind; Rope, Cord


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: snēowan vb.str to hasten GED
  snūþ n.masc hurry GED
  snyþþan vb.wk to rush GED
English: aponeurosis n flat thin dense fascia terminating/attaching to muscle AHD/W7
  enervate vb.trans to lessen vitality/strength of AHD/W7
  nerve n sinew, tendon AHD/W7
  neuron n fundamental cell in nerve tissue AHD/W7
  neurula n embryo in early development AHD
German: Nerv n.masc nerve LRC
Old Norse: snúa vb to plait, tie, twist, turn LRC
Old Icelandic: snera vb.str.VII.pret to turn GED
  snugga vb.wk to look GED
  snūa vb to turn GED
  snūðigr adj swift GED
  snūðr n twist, profit GED
  snūinn vb.past.ptc to turn GED
  snyðja vb to rush GED
Icelandic: snöggr adj sudden ASD
Danish: nerve n nerve TLL
Swedish: nerv n nerve TLL
Gothic: *sniwan vb.str.V to come upon GED
Latin: enervatus vb.ptc weak, lacking energy W7
  enervo, enervāre vb to weaken, take away energy W7
  nervus, nervi n.masc nerve, sinew, muscle LRC
New Latin: neuron n.neut neuron W7
Portuguese: nervo n nerve TLL
Spanish: nervio n nerve TLL
French: nerf n nerve TLL
Italian: nervo n nerve TLL
Latvian: snaujis n noose GED
Old Church Slavonic: o-snovati vb.past.ptc found GED
Russian: snovatь vb to scheme, go quickly back and forth GED
Greek: aponeurousthai vb to pass into tendon W7
  aponeurōsis n.fem passing into tendon W7
  νεῦρον n.neut nerve, sinew GED
Avestan: snāvarə n sinew GED
Sanskrit: snā́va n sinew GED
Tocharian B: ṣñaura n sinews GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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