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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: so(s),   (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)

Semantic Field: Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: se, sēo/sīo def/ the, that; he, she LRC
Middle English: she she W7
English: she that female one AHD/W7
  Shelob prop.n spider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: ze they, them [atonic form] TLL
  ze she [atonic form] TLL
  zij they, them TLL
  zij she TLL
Old High German: si/sī she RPN
German: Sie you (polite) TLL
  sie they, them TLL
  sie she, her LRC
Old Norse:  dem.pron that LRC
Old Icelandic:  dem.pron.fem that RPN
Gothic: sa def/ the, this, that; he, she, it LRC
   dem.pron.fem this, that, she RPN
Old Latin: sam dem.pron.fem her RPN
  sās them RPN
  sōs them RPN
  sum dem.pron.masc him RPN
Albanian: ai, ajo pron he, she; it, that IEW
  ky, kjo dem.pron this IEW
Greek:  def/ the, this, that RPN
   def/ the, this, that LRC
Hittite: ša conn.pcl this, that RPN
  -še enc.dem.pron this, that RPN
Avestan: ha- dem.stem this, that RPN
Sanskrit:  dem.masc this, that RPN
  sā/sī dem.fem this, that RPN
Tocharian B: sā(-) dem.fem this, that RPN
  se(-) dem.masc this, that RPN
Tocharian A: sa- dem.masc this, that RPN
  sā- dem.fem this, that RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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