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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: spek̑-   'to watch, inspect, spy on'

Semantic Field: to Look


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: easbog n bishop ASD
Scots Gaelic: easbuig n bishop ASD
Welsh: esgob n bishop ASD
Old English: bisc(e)op/biscep n.masc bishop W7/ASD
Middle English: aspect n aspect W7
  aspien vb to espy, detect, observe MEV
  bisshop/bis(s)chop/bysshop(p)e n bishop W7/MEV
  circumspect adj circumspect W7
  despisen vb to despise W7
  despite n despite W7
  episcopal adj episcopal W7
  especial adj especial W7
  espien vb to espy W7
  perspective adj/n perspective W7
  prospect n prospect W7
  respect n respect W7
  respit n respite W7
  specious adj specious W7
  spectacle n spectacle W7
  spice n spice W7
  spien vb to spy W7
  spite n spite W7
  suspect n suspect W7
  suspecten vb to suspect W7
English: aspect n position of stars/planets w.r.t. one another AHD/W7
  auspice n observation in augury (flight/feeding of birds) AHD/W7
  bishop n prelate, one having spiritual/ecclesiastical supervision AHD/W7
  circumspect adj prudent, careful to consider circumstances/consequences AHD/W7
  colposcope n endoscope for examining vaginal/cervical tissues AHD
  colposcopy n medical examination using colposcope AHD
  conspicuous adj obvious to eye/mind AHD/W7
  despicable adj deserving to be despised AHD/W7
  despise vb.trans to regard with contempt/aversion AHD/W7
  despite n spite, pique, malice, contempt W7
  despite prep notwithstanding, in spite of W7
  epidiascope n opaque projector TLL
  episcopal adj re: bishop(s) AHD/W7
  especial adj special, particular AHD/W7
  espionage n practice of spying/using spies AHD/W7
  espy vb.trans to catch sight of AHD/W7
  expect vb to stay, wait AHD/W7
  frontispiece n principal front of building AHD/W7
  horoscope n diagram of relative positions of planets in zodiac AHD/W7
  inspect vb to look over, view closely, critically appraise AHD/W7
  introspect vb to examine reflectively AHD/W7
  periscope n instrument using mirrors/prisms to transfer image between different heights TLL
  perspective adj aiding vision AHD/W7
  perspective n optical glass (e.g. in telescope) AHD/W7
  perspective n process/technique of representing spatial relations of objects AHD/W7
  perspicacious adj keen, of acute mental vision/discernment AHD/W7
  prospect n outlook, exposure AHD/W7
  respect n reference, relation to/concern with something AHD/W7
  respite n postponement, temporary delay AHD/W7
  retrospect vb to refer to past event AHD/W7
  -scope n.sfx means/instrument for viewing/observing AHD/W7
  scope n space/opportunity for unhampered thought/motion/activity AHD/W7
  -scopy n.sfx viewing, observation AHD/W7
  skeptic n adherent/advocate of skepticism AHD/W7
  species n individuals having common attributes/designated by common name AHD/W7
  specimen n sample, part/item typical of whole/group AHD/W7
  specious adj showy AHD/W7
  spectacle n something exhibited as notable/unusual/entertaining AHD/W7
  spectrum n array of components separated/arranged in order AHD/W7
  speculate vb.intrans to reflect, ponder/meditate on subject AHD/W7
  speculum n tubular instrument inserted into body passage for inspection/medication AHD/W7
  spice n aromatic vegetable product used to season/flavor food AHD/W7
  spite n hatred, petty ill will W7
  spy vb to scout, watch secretly AHD/W7
  suspect adj suspected, regarded with suspicion AHD/W7
  suspect vb to distrust, have doubts about AHD/W7
  telescope n optical instrument for observing distant objects AHD/W7
  transpicuous adj transparent AHD/W7
Dutch: bioscoop n cinema TLL
  bisschop n bishop ASD
  spiegel n mirror TLL
Old Saxon: biskop n bishop ASD
  spēgal n mirror KSW
Old High German: piscof n bishop ASD
  spehōn vb to spy W7
  spiegal n mirror KDW
Middle High German: bischof n bishop ASD
German: Bischof n.masc bishop ASD
  spähen vb to spy, peer LRC
  Spiegel n.masc mirror TLL
Old Norse: biskup n bishop ASD
  spá n.fem prophecy, song of fate LRC
  spegill n mirror KNW
Danish: bisp n bishop ASD
  spejl n mirror TLL
Swedish: biskop n bishop ASD
  spegel n mirror TLL
Gothic: aipiskaupus n bishop ASD
Latin: aspectus vb.ptc looked at W7
  aspicio, aspicere vb to look at W7
  auspex n leader, protector, bird augur AHD
  auspicium, auspicii n.neut divination via flight of birds LRC
  circumspectō, circumspectāre, circumspectāvī, circumspectātum vb to look around LRC
  circumspectus adj circumspect W7
  circumspicio, circumspicere vb to look around, be cautious W7
  cōnspiciō, conspicere, conspēxī, conspectum vb to perceive, get sight of LRC
  conspicuus adj conspicuous, visible W7
  dēspiciō, dēspicere, dēspēxī, dēspectum vb to despise, look astray W7
  despicor, despicari vb.dep to despoil, plunder W7
  exspectō, exspectāre, exspectāvī, exspectātum vb to wait for, look forward to LRC
  horoscopus n.masc device to indicate time W7
  inspectus vb.ptc inspected W7
  inspicio, inspicere vb to inspect W7
  introspectus vb.ptc having looked inside W7
  introspicio, introspicere vb to look inside W7
  perspectus vb.ptc looked at through, clearly seen W7
  perspicax, perspicācis adj perspicacious, sharp-sighted W7
  perspicio, perspicere vb to look through, see clearly W7
  prospectus n.masc view, prospect W7
  prospectus vb.ptc foreseen W7
  prospicio, prospicere vb to look forward, exercise foresight W7
  respectus n.masc act of looking back W7
  respectus vb.ptc regarded, looked back at W7
  respicio, respicere vb to look back, regard W7
  retrospectus vb.ptc looked back at W7
  retrospicio, retrospicere vb to look back at W7
  scepticus adj skeptical W7
  species, speciei n.fem aspect, appearance; species LRC
  specimen n.neut model, representative of species W7
  speciō, specere vb to look W7
  speciosus adj beautiful, plausible W7
  speco, specere vb to look at W7
  spectaculum n.neut show, spectacle W7
  spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātum vb to watch, look/gaze at LRC
  spectrum n.neut specter, appearance W7
  spectus vb.ptc looked at W7
  specula n.fem watchtower W7
  speculatus vb.ptc examined W7
  speculor, speculāri vb.dep to examine, spy out W7
  speculum n.neut mirror W7
  specus, specus n.masc cave, pit LRC
  suspecto, suspectāre vb to suspect W7
  suspectus vb.ptc looked at, suspected W7
  suspico, suspicere vb to look at from above W7
  transpicio, transpicere vb to look through W7
Vulgar Latin: *ebiscopus n bishop AHD
Late Latin: despicabilis adj despicable W7
  episcopalis adj episcopal W7
  episcopus n.masc bishop W7
  frontispicium n.neut front view, frontispiece W7
Medieval Latin: perspectivus adj optical, re: sight W7
  respectus n.masc respect W7
New Latin: -scopium sfx -scope, looking W7
  spectrum n.neut array of components W7
  tele-scopium adj lit. far-seeing W7
  transpicuus adj transparent W7
Spanish: especia n spice TLL
  obispo n bishop ASD
Old French: despire vb to despise W7
  despit n despite W7
  espice n.fem spice W7
  espier vb to espy, catch glimpse of W7
  respit n.masc rest W7
Middle French: circonspect adj circumspect W7
  espion n.masc spy W7
  espionage n.masc espionage W7
  espionner vb to spy W7
  frontispice n.masc frontispiece W7
  horoscope n.masc horoscope W7
  perspective n.fem view, perspective W7
  spectacle n.masc spectacle, magnifying glass W7
  suspect adj suspect W7
French: épice n spice TLL
  espionnage n.masc activity of spying W7
Old Italian: prospettiva n.fem technique of representing relations of objects W7
  prospetto n.masc view, prospect W7
  spione n.masc spy W7
Italian: dispetto n.masc despite TLL
  scòpo n.masc goal, purpose W7
  vescovo n bishop ASD
Lithuanian: wyskupas n bishop ASD
Albanian: respektim n.masc respect LRC
Homeric Greek: σκοπός n.masc spy, scout, watch(man) LRC
Attic: σκοπῶ vb to view, look at, consider LS
Greek: ἐπί-σκοπος n.masc guardian, overseer LS
  σκεπτικός adj watchful, thoughtful, reflective LS
  σκέπτομαι vb to look out/about/carefully LS
  -skopion afx observation, examination W7
  τηλε-σκόπος adj lit. far-seeing LS
  hōro-skopos n.masc device to indicate time W7
Armenian: eskop n bishop ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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