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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sp(h)elg̑h(en), spleng̑h-, splē̆g̑h-   'milt; spleen'

Semantic Fields: Fish (n); Belly, Stomach


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: selg n spleen RPN
Breton: felc'h n spleen RPN
Middle English: splen n spleen W7
English: splanchnic adj visceral, re: viscera AHD/W7
  splanchnology n scientific study of viscera AHD
  splanchnopleure n inner/visceral layer of mesoderm AHD/CDC
  spleen n ductless vascular organ near vertebrate stomach/intestine AHD/W7
Latin: liēn n.masc spleen RPN
New Latin: splanchnicus adj re: viscera W7
Middle French: esplen n.masc spleen W7
Old Church Slavonic: slězena n spleen RPN
Russian: selezenka n spleen RPN
Greek: σπλάγχνα viscera, inward parts RPN
  σπλήν n.masc spleen RPN
Armenian: pʰaycaɫn n spleen RPN
Avestan: spərəzan- n spleen RPN
Sanskrit: plīhán- n spleen RPN
Bengali: pilā n spleen RPN
  pilihā n spleen RPN
Hindi: pilaī n spleen RPN
  pīlha n spleen RPN
Panjabi: lipph n enlarged spleen RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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