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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: spend-   'to offer a libation'

Semantic Field: to Pour

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Middle English: espousen vb to espouse W7
  sponde n spondee W7
  spouse n spouse W7
English: despond vb.intrans to become discouraged/disheartened AHD/W7
  espouse vb.trans to marry AHD/W7
  respond vb to answer, say something in return AHD/W7
  spondee n metrical foot: two long/stressed syllables AHD/W7
  sponsor n one who presents candidate for baptism/confirmation AHD/W7
  spouse n wife/husband, married person AHD/W7
Italic  
Latin: despondeō, despondēre vb to promise W7
  respondeō, respondēre vb to respond, answer W7
  spondeō, spondēre vb to promise, betroth W7
  spondeum n.neut spondee W7
  spōnsa n.fem bride, betrothed woman W7
  spōnsor, spōnsōris n.masc bail, surety; bondsman, guarantor W7
  spōnsus n.masc groom, betrothed man W7
  spōnsus vb.ptc promised, guaranteed W7
Late Latin: sponso, sponsāre vb to betroth W7
Spanish: esposo n spouse TLL
Old French: espous n.masc husband W7
  espouse n.fem wife W7
Middle French: espouser vb to marry W7
  respondre vb to answer W7
  spondée n.fem metrical foot: two long syllables W7
French: épou n spouse TLL
Hellenic  
Greek: σπένδω vb to promise, pour a libation LRC
  σπονδεῖος adj re: libation LRC
  σπονδή n.fem libation, drink-offering LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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