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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sperg̑h-, spreg̑h-, nasalized spreng̑h-   'to rush, hurry, spring, jump'

Semantic Fields: to Hurry, Hasten; to Jump, Leap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣ-spring/ǣ-sprynge n.neut fountain, lit. water-spring ODE/ASD
  besprengan vb to besprinkle W7/ASD
  spring/spryng n.masc spring: source; rising/springing; what springs up ODE/ASD
  springan, sprang, sprungon, sprungen vb.str.III to spring, spread, burst forth LRC
  wiell-spring n wellspring ODE
Middle English: besprengen vb to besprinkle W7
  bespreynt adj besprent W7
  sprenge/springe n springe W7
  spring n spring ODE
  springen vb to spring W7
English: besprent adj sprinkled over AHD/W7
  gelandesprung n skiing jump made from low crouch AHD/W7
  klipspringer n small agile African antelope AHD
  spring, sprang, sprung vb.str to leap, dart, shoot, move elastically AHD/W7
  spring n (water) source; season of growth IEW/W7
  springbok n small S African brown/white leaping gazelle AHD
  springe n noose fastened to elastic to catch small game AHD/W7
  springle n springe, bird trap/snare IEW
  wellspring n fountainhead, source of supply W7
Old Frisian: springa vb to spring, spread, burst forth ASD
Middle Dutch: spring n spring: source ODE
  springhen vb to spring AHD
Dutch: springen vb to spring ODE
  springer n springer: leaper, jumper AHD
Afrikaans: klipspringer n klipspringer AHD
  springbok n springbok AHD
Old Saxon: springan vb to spring, burst forth ASD
Middle Low German: spring n spring: source ODE
Old High German: spring n spring: source ODE
  springan vb to spring, jump W7
German: Geländesprung n.masc gelandesprung W7
  springen vb to spring, jump LRC
  Sprung n.masc leap, jump W7
Old Norse: springa vb to spring ODE
Icelandic: springa vb to spring, burst, crack ASD
Homeric Greek: σπέρχω vb to speed, hasten, drive fast LRC
Greek: ἀσπερχές adv unceasingly LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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