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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)teg-   'to deck, thatch, cover; house, roof'

Semantic Fields: to Cover; House; Roof


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: étach n garment RPN
  tech n house RPN
  tugatóir n thatcher RPN
  tugid vb to roof over, to cover RPN
Old Welsh: tig n house RPN
Old English: tigele n.fem tile, brick W7
  þæc n.neut thatch, roof RPN
  þ(e)aca n.masc roof, covering RPN
  ðeccan, ðeahte, ðeaht vb.wk.I to cover, conceal LRC
  þeccan vb to cover RPN
Middle English: detecten vb to detect W7
  tegument n tegument W7
  thecchen vb to thatch W7
  tile n tile W7
  toile n cloth W7
English: deck n covering, floor/platform (e.g. on ship) AHD/W7
  deck vb.trans to cover AHD/W7
  deckle n detachable wooden frame around mold AHD/W7
  detect vb.trans to discover true/hidden/disguised character of AHD/W7
  integument n something that covers/encloses AHD/W7
  obtect adj re: enclosure in firm chitinous case/covering AHD/W7
  protect vb.trans to guard, shield from injury/destruction AHD/W7
  stegodon n extinct elephant-like mammal AHD
  stegosaur n herbivorous dinosaur with bony back-plates AHD
  tectrix n covert, shelter, hiding place AHD/W7
  tectum n rooflike structure of body AHD
  tegmen n integument, superficial layer/cover AHD/W7
  tegmentum n tegmen, covering AHD/W7
  tegular adj re: tile AHD/W7
  tegument n integument AHD/W7
  thatch n (covering of) straw/plant material W7
  thatch vb.trans to cover (with thatch) AHD/W7
  thug n brutal ruffian/assassin AHD/W7
  tile n piece of fired clay AHD/W7
  toga n loose outer garment AHD/W7
  tuille n hinged armor thigh plate AHD/W7
Old Frisian: thekka vb to deck ASD
Dutch: dak n roof TLL
  dek n deck TLL
  deken n blanket TLL
  dekken vb to deck W7
Old Saxon: þekkian vb to deck, thatch RPN
Old Low German: thekkan vb to deck ASD
Middle Low German: *vordeck n deck W7
  vordecken vb to deck W7
Low German: *verdeck n deck W7
Old High German: dah n.neut deck, roof, blanket ASD
  decchen/decken vb to deck RPN/W7
  decchi n deck, roof RPN
  ziagel/ziagalo n.fem tile, brick, earthenware jar ASD
German: Dach n.neut deck, roof, cover, shelter ASD
  Deck n.neut deck TLL
  Decke n.fem roof, cover, blanket TLL
  Deckel n.masc lid, cover W7
  decken vb to deck W7
  Verdeck n.neut deck W7
Old Norse: tigl n tile W7
  þekja n.fem deck, thatch, roof LRC
Old Icelandic: staka n skin, hide RPN
  þekja vb to deck, thatch RPN
Icelandic: tigl n.neut tile, brick ASD
  þak n.neut deck, roof ASD
  þekja vb to deck, thatch ASD
Danish: daek n deck TLL
  tag n roof TLL
Swedish: däck n deck TLL
  tak n roof, ceiling TLL
Latin: detectus vb.ptc detected W7
  detego, detegere vb to detect, uncover W7
  intectus, intecta, intectum adj uncovered LRC
  intego, integere vb to cover W7
  integumentum n.neut cover, protection W7
  obtectus vb.ptc covered over W7
  obtego, obtegere vb to cover over W7
  protectus vb.ptc protected W7
  protego, protegere vb to protect, cover W7
  tector n.masc one that covers W7
  tēctum n.neut deck, roof RPN
  teges n mat, rug, covering RPN
  tegimentum n.neut tegmentum, envelope W7
  tegmen n.neut tegmen W7
  tego, tegere vb to thatch, cover, conceal, protect RPN
  tegula, tegulae n.fem tile LRC
  tegulum n roof, covering RPN
  tegumen, teguminis n.neut clothing, covering LRC
  tegumentum n.neut tegmentum, envelope W7
  toga n.fem covering; (Roman) garment RPN
New Latin: tectrix, tectricis n.fem covering feather W7
  tegmen, tegminis n.neut tegmen W7
  tegmentum n.neut tegmentum W7
Portuguese: teto n roof, thatch TLL
Spanish: techo n roof, thatch TLL
Middle French: tuille n.fem tile W7
French: toit n roof, thatch TLL
Italian: tetto n roof, thatch TLL
Old Prussian: steege n barn RPN
  stogis n roof RPN
Lithuanian: stógas n roof RPN
Old Church Slavonic: o-stegъ n garment RPN
Homeric Greek: τέγος n roof, thatch; covered part of house RPN
Greek: στέγη n roof, thatch RPN
  στέγος n.neut roof, thatch; covered part of house RPN
  στέγω vb to thatch, cover, conceal, protect RPN
  τέγη n roof, thatch RPN
Sanskrit: sthaga n thug, rogue W7
  sthagati vb to veil, cover, conceal RPN
  sthagita-ḥ adj covered, concealed, hidden RPN
Hindi: ṭhag n thug, thief W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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