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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: stē̆ib(h)-, stī̆b(h)-, stē̆ip-, stī̆p-   'stick, pole, stake; stiff'

Semantic Fields: Beam; Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: stīf adj stiff W7
Middle English: steven vb to steeve W7
  stif adj stiff W7
  stuble n stubble W7
  stuflen vb to stifle W7
English: constipate vb.trans to make costive, cause constipation in AHD/W7
  constipation n inability to defecate TLL
  etiolate vb.trans to bleach/alter natural development of by excluding sunlight AHD/W7
  steeve vb.trans to stow in ship's hold AHD/W7
  stevedore n one who (un)loads ship in port AHD/W7
  stiff adj rigid, not easily bent AHD/W7
  stifle vb to choke, muffle, smother, suffocate IEW
  stipe n short plant stalk AHD/W7
  stipel n stipule of leaflet AHD/W7
  stipes n peduncle AHD/W7
  stipple vb.trans to engrave via dots/flicks AHD/W7
  stipule n appendage at base of leaf in plant AHD/W7
  stubble n herbaceous plant part left in soil after harvest AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: stijf adj stiff W7
Dutch: stijf adj stiff ASD
  stippelen vb to stipple W7
Middle High German: stīf adj stiff ASD
German: steif adj stiff ASD
Old Icelandic: stīfla vb to dam, check, restrain, stifle IEW
Danish: stiv adj stiff ASD
Swedish: styf adj stiff ASD
Latin: constipo, constipāre vb to crowd together W7
  stipes n.masc tree trunk W7
  stīpo, stīpare vb to compress, press together W7
  stipula n.fem stalk, straw W7
Medieval Latin: constipatus vb.ptc crowded together W7
New Latin: stipella n.fem stipule of leaflet W7
  stipes, stipitis n.fem root, peduncle W7
  stipula n.fem stipule W7
Portuguese: estivar vb to pack tightly W7
Spanish: estibador n.masc/fem stevedore W7/Sal
  estibar vb to pack tightly W7
Old French: estuble n.masc stalk, straw W7
French: étoiler vb to decorate with stars W7
Homeric Greek: στείβω vb to stamp, tread, trample LRC
Classical Armenian: stipem vb to push, urge LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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