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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. stē̆r-   'star'

Semantic Field: Star


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: sterenn n star GED
Cornish: sterenn n star GED
Welsh: seren n star GED
Old English: ǣfen-steorra n.masc evening-star ASD
  steorra n.masc star GED
Middle English: asterisk n asterisk AHD
  astronomie n astronomy AHD
  constellacioun n constellation W7
  even(e)-sterre n evening-star OED
  sterre n star W7
English: aster n leafy-stemmed composite herb AHD/W7
  asteriated adj star-shaped AHD/W7
  asterisk n '*' [used in writing as reference/omission mark] AHD/W7
  asterism n constellation, small star group AHD/W7
  asteroid n sub-planetary solar satellite AHD/W7
  astral adj re: stars AHD/W7
  astraphobia n fear of thunder/lightning AHD
  astr(o)- pfx star, heavens AHD/W7
  astrobleme n meteor/comet impact pit/crater AHD
  astrogate vb to navigate in space W7
  astronaut n one who works/travels in space AHD
  astronomer n one who studies stars/planets/galaxies AHD
  astronomy n science of celestial bodies AHD/W7
  constellation n configuration of stars AHD/W7
  disaster n unfavorable stellar/planetary aspect AHD/W7
  evening-star n Venus seen at/after sunset W7
  Evenstar prop.n Arwen's epithet in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  star n luminous natural body visible in sky AHD/W7
  stellar adj astral, re: star(s) AHD/W7
  stellate adj star-shaped, radiating from center AHD
Old Frisian: stēra n star GED
Dutch: ster n star TLL
Old Saxon: sterro n.masc star GED
Middle Low German: sterne n.masc star GED
Old High German: stern n.masc star GED
  sterno n.masc star GED
  sterro n.masc star GED
German: Stern n.masc star LRC
Old Icelandic: stjarna n.fem star GED
Icelandic: stjarna n.fem star ASD
Danish: stjerne n star TLL
Swedish: stjärna n star TLL
Gothic: *stairno n.fem star GED
Crimean Gothic: *stern/stein n star GED/CGo
Latin: aster n.masc star W7
  astronomia, astronomiae n.fem astronomy LRC
  astrum n.neut star W7
  stēlla n.fem star GED
Late Latin: asteriscus n.masc little star W7
  astralis adj re: stars W7
  constellatio n.fem ensemble of stars W7
  constellatus vb.ptc studded with stars W7
  stellaris adj re: stars W7
Old French: astronomie n astronomy AHD
Middle French: constellation n.fem ensemble of stars W7
  desastre n.masc disaster W7
  disaster n.masc disaster W7
Old Italian: disastro n.masc disaster W7
Homeric Greek: ἀστερόεις adj starred, starry, star-like LRC
  ἀστήρ n.masc star GED
  ἄστρον n.neut star, constellation LRC
Greek: asterizein vb to arrange in constellations W7
  ἀστέριος adj starry CDC
  ἀστερίσκος n.masc.dim asterisk, little star CDC
  ἀστερισμός n.masc asterism, marking with stars W7/CDC
  ἀστεροειδής adj star-like CDC
  astrapē n lightning AHD
  astronomia n astronomy AHD
Hittite: haster- n star GED
Armenian: astł n star GED
Avestan: stārəm star GED
  stārō stars GED
Sanskrit: tā́ras stars GED
  stár- n star GED
  stŕ̥bhiṣ stars GED
Tocharian B: ścirye stars GED
Tocharian A: śre-ñ stars GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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