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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. ster-, sterə- : strē-, steru- : streu-   'to strew, scatter, spread out'

Semantic Field: to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: srath n.masc valley W7
Old Breton: strovis I have spread out RPN
Old English: strǣt n.fem street, road W7
  strand n.neut strand ASD
  strē(a)w/strēow/strēu n.neut straw, hay RPN/ASD
  strēon n.neut gain, treasure, acquisition W7
  strē(o)wian/strēawian vb.wk to strew, scatter RPN/ASD
Middle English: destroyen vb to destroy W7
  instructen vb to instruct W7
  instrument n instrument W7
  prostrat adj prostrate W7
  straien vb to stray W7
  strand n strand W7
  straw n straw W7
  stray n stray W7
  streen n strain W7
  strete n street W7
  strewen vb to strew W7
  strowen vb to strew W7
  structure n structure W7
English: bremsstrahlung n (form of) electromagnetic radiation AHD/W7
  consternate vb to dismay, terrify, throw into confusion AHD/CDC
  consternation n terror, astonishment, paralyzing dismay AHD/CDC
  construct vb.trans to make/form by combining parts AHD/W7
  destroy vb to ruin, demolish AHD/W7
  estray vb.intrans to stray AHD/W7
  industry n diligence in pursuit/employment AHD/W7
  instruct vb.trans to teach, give knowledge to AHD/W7
  instrument n means of achievement/performance AHD/W7
  Langstrand prop.n Gondor coast in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  obstruct vb.trans to block/close up (via obstacle) AHD/W7
  perestroika n mid-1980's restructuring of Soviet economy/bureaucracy AHD
  prostrate adj stretched out (face on ground) AHD/W7
  sternocleidomastoid n neck muscle that rotates head AHD
  sternum n compound ventral bone/cartilage AHD/W7
  strain n lineage, progeny, ancestry AHD/W7
  strand n shore, beach, land bordering water body W7
  strath n (low-lying grassland along) flat wide river valley AHD/W7
  stratocracy n government based on army/military AHD/W7
  stratus n cloud form wider/lower than cumulostratus/cirrostratus AHD/W7
  straw n grain stalks after threshing AHD/W7
  Strawheads Rohirrim a.k.a. Forgoil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  stray n domestic animal lost/wandering at large AHD/W7
  stray vb.intrans to roam, wander from company/restraint/proper limits AHD/W7
  street n wider thoroughfare than alley/lane in village/town/city AHD/W7
  streusel n crumbly pastry topping AHD
  strew vb.trans to spread by scattering AHD/W7
  stroma n supporting framework of animal organ AHD/W7
  stromatolite n sedimentary structure of laminated carbonate/silicate rock AHD
  structure n construction, action of building AHD/W7
  substratum n foundation, underlying support AHD/W7
  substruction n substructure, underlying/supporting part of fabrication AHD/W7
Old Frisian: strē n straw ASD
  strēte n street, road ASD
  strewa vb to strew ASD
Old Dutch: strande n.neut strand ASD
Dutch: strand n strand TLL
Old Saxon: strāta n street, road ASD
  strōedun/streidun vb to strew ASD
Old Low German: streidin vb to strew ASD
  strō n straw ASD
Old High German: gistriuni n gain W7
  stirna n forehead W7
  strāza n street W7
  stre(u)wen vb to strew, sprinkle RPN
  strō/strao n straw W7/ASD
  strouwen vb to strew, sprinkle RPN
Middle High German: strant n.masc strand ASD
  strousel n something strewn AHD
German: Bremsstrahlung n.fem bremsstrahlung W7
  Stirn n.fem forehead LRC
  Strand n.masc strand ASD
  Strasse n.fem street LRC
  streuen vb to strew LRC
  Streusel n.masc/neut dust, litter; sprinkling, streusel AHD
  Stroh n.neut straw LRC
  Strohhalm n.neut drinking straw LRC
Old Norse: strönd n strand W7
Old Icelandic: strá vb to strew, cover with (straw) RPN
Icelandic: strá n straw ASD
  strá vb to strew ASD
  strönd n.fem strand ASD
Danish: strand n strand TLL
  stræde n lane TLL
Swedish: strand n strand, bank TLL
Gothic: straujan vb to strew, spread out RPN
Old Latin: indostruus adj diligent W7
  -struus afx built, instituted W7
Latin: constructus vb.ptc built W7
  construo, construere vb to build, construct W7
  destruo, destruere vb to destroy, tear down W7
  industria n.fem diligence W7
  industrius adj diligent W7
  instructus, instructa, instructum adj/vb.ptc ready, arranged, built in LRC
  instrumentum n.neut instrument W7
  instruo, instruere vb to arrange, build up; equip, instruct W7
  obstructus vb.ptc obstructed W7
  obstruo, obstruere vb to obstruct W7
  prosterno, prosternere vb to bow down, throw down W7
  prostratus vb.ptc spread out, thrown down W7
  sterno, sternere vb to spread/stretch out RPN
  stratus vb.ptc spread out W7
  stroma n.neut bed covering W7
  structura n.fem structure W7
  structus vb.ptc built W7
  struēs n heap RPN
  struo, struere vb to build, pile up, put together RPN
  substerno, substernere vb to spread under W7
  substratus vb.ptc built under W7
  substructio, substructionis n.fem construction under W7
  substructus vb.ptc built under W7
  substruo, substruere vb to build beneath W7
Vulgar Latin: destrugere vb to destroy W7
  extrago, extragāre vb to wander outside W7
Late Latin: strata n.fem street, paved road W7
Medieval Latin: substratum n.neut substratum W7
New Latin: sternum n.neut breastbone W7
  stratus vb.ptc spreaded W7
Old French: destruire vb to destroy W7
  estraié vb.ptc stray W7
  estraier vb to stray, wander W7
Middle French: industrie n.fem (employment involving) skill W7
Italian: strada n street TLL
Old Church Slavonic: pro-stьrǫ, pro-strěti vb to stretch RPN
  strana n.fem area, region, country; (pl) heathen LRC
  stranьnъ adj strange, foreign LRC
  stroiti, strojǫ, stroiši vb to prepare, arrange LRC
Old Russian: strojĭ n order AHD
Albanian: shtrij vb to spread out RPN
Homeric Greek: στέρνον n.neut chest, breast(bone) LRC
  στορέννῡμι vb to strew, spread, lay (a bed) RPN
  στρατόομαι vb to be encamped, take the field LRC
  στρατός n.masc host, army LRC
  στρώννῡμι vb to strew, spread, lay (a bed) RPN
Greek: stornynai vb to spread out W7
  στρατεία n.fem expedition LRC
  στρατεύω vb to attack, take the field LRC
  στρατηγός n.masc general LRC
  στρατία n.fem host LRC
  στρατιώτης n.masc soldier LRC
  strōma n.neut bed covering W7
Avestan: stərənāti vb to stretch, spread, extend RPN
Sanskrit: stīrṇá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc spread, strewn, scattered RPN
  stṛṇā́ti vb to strew, scatter, spread out RPN
  stṛṇóti vb to strew, scatter, spread out RPN
  stṛtá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc bestrewn, covered RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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