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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 7. (s)ter-n-   'thorn, prickly stalk'

Semantic Fields: Sharp; Branch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æppel-ðorn n.masc crab-apple (tree), lit. apple-thorn ASD
  slāh-þorn n.masc blackthorn, lit. sloe-thorn ASD
  þorn n.masc thorn; (name for) TH-rune GED
  þyrne n.fem thornbush GED
  þyrnen adj thorny GED
Middle English: thorn n thorn W7
English: Appledore prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  blackthorn n sloe (tree): Prunus spinosa W7
  Pickthorn prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thorn n sharp woody plant spine AHD/W7
Old Frisian: thorn n.masc thorn, spine, prickle ASD
  thornen adj re: thorns ASD
Old Saxon: þorn n.masc thorn, spine, prickle GED/ASD
Old Low German: thorn n.masc thorn, spine, prickle ASD
Old High German: dorn n.masc thorn, spine, prickle W7/ASD
  durnīn adj thorny ASD
  þorn n.str.masc thorn GED
German: Dorn n.masc thorn LRC
Old Icelandic: stirðr adj stiff GED
  storð n.fem grass, stalk, stem GED
  þorn n thorn GED
  þyrnir n.masc thornbush GED
Icelandic: þorn n.masc thorn: name of letter ASD
  þyrnir n.fem thorn ASD
Danish: slaaentorn n blackthorn, lit. sloe-thorn ASD
Gothic: *þaurnus n.str.masc thorn, thorny plant GED/ASD
Old Church Slavonic: strъnь n stalk GED
  trъnъ n thorny plant GED
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: τέρνακα n stem of cardoon fruit GED
New Persian: tarrah n grass GED
Khotanese: tarra- n grass GED
Sanskrit: tŕ̥ṇam n grass, straw GED
  tṛṇa n grass, blade of grass W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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