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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. (s)ter-   'dung, stercory, dirty water; to rot, befoul'

Semantic Fields: to Void Excrement; Dung, Excrement; Dirty, Soiled; to Spoil

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Breton: troaz n urine IEW
Welsh: trwnc n urine; dregs, sediment IEW
English  
Middle English: stercorye n stercory OED
English: dre(c)k n junk, trash, rubbish W9
  stercoraceous adj re: dung AHD/W7
  stercoral adj re: dung OED
  stercoricolous adj living in dung W7
  stercory n.obs filth, dung, excrement OED
  stercovorous adj scatophagous, lit. dung-eating W7
W-Germanic  
Middle High German: drec n dung, excrement W9
German: Dreck n.masc mud, mire, dirt, filth; dung, excrement W9
Yiddish: drek n dreck; dung, excrement W9
Italic  
Latin: stercus, stercoris n.neut manure, stercory W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
obs=obsolete

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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