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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sū̆-s, suu̯-ós   'pig, sow, swine'

Semantic Fields: Pig; Sow; Swine


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: soc n plowshare, lit. hog-snout W7
Old English: hogg n hog W7
  mere-swīn n.neut dolphin, porpoise, lit. sea-pig ASD
  sugu/sū n.fem sow W7/ASD
  swīn n.neut swine W7
Middle English: hogge n hog W7
  soilen vb to soil W7
  soket n socket W7
  sowe n sow W7
  swine n swine W7
English: hog n domestic swine AHD/W7
  Hyades prop.n (star cluster named for) daughters of Atlas: sisters of the Pleiades (Greek mythology) LRC
  hyena n nocturnal Old World carnivorous mammal AHD/W7
  hyoscine n scopolamine AHD
  keelson n longitudinal structure fastened atop ship's keel AHD/W7
  socket n hollow/opening that holds something AHD/W7
  soil vb to pollute, corrupt, stain/defile morally AHD/W7
  sow n adult female swine AHD/W7
  swine n pig: stout-bodied omnivorous mammal AHD/W7
Old Frisian: swīn n.neut swine ASD
Dutch: zog n sow ASD
Old Saxon: swīn n.neut swine ASD
Old High German:  n sow W7
  swīn n.neut swine W7/ASD
German: Sau n.fem sow LRC
  Schwein n.neut swine LRC
Icelandic: svín n.neut swine ASD
  sȳr n sow ASD
Danish: so n sow ASD
  svin n swine TLL
Swedish: kölsvin n keelson W7
  sugga n sow ASD
  svin n swine TLL
Gothic: swein n.neut swine ASD
Latin: Hyades Hyades (group of stars) W7
  hyaena n.fem hyena W7
  suile n.neut pig barn W7
  sus n.masc hog, swine W7
Old French: soil n.masc pig-sty W7
  soiller vb to soil, wallow W7
Anglo-French: soket n.masc little plowshare W7
Homeric Greek: σῦς/ὗς n.masc hog, swine LRC
Greek: hyaina n.fem hyena W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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