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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯ād-   'sweet; to enjoy something'

Semantic Fields: Sweet; Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swēte adj sweet W7
Middle English: aswagen/asuagen vb to assuage W7/CDC
  suasion n suasion W7
  swete adj sweet W7
English: aedes/aëdes n genus of mosquitoes AHD/W7
  assuage vb.trans to ease, lessen intensity of (pain) AHD/W7
  assuasive adj calming, soothing AHD/W7
  dissuade vb.trans to advise against (action) AHD/W7
  hedonic adj re: pleasure/hedonism AHD
  hedonism n doctrine that pleasure/happiness is sole/chief good in life AHD/W7
  persuade vb.trans to move by argument to belief/action AHD/W7
  soave n dry white Italian wine AHD
  suasion n act of persuading/influencing AHD/W7
  suave adj urbane, polished AHD/W7
  sweet adj pleasing in taste AHD/W7
Old Frisian: swēte adj sweet ASD
Old Saxon: swōti adj sweet ASD
Old High German: suozi adj sweet W7
Icelandic: sœtr adj sweet ASD
Latin: dissuādeo, dissuādēre vb to dissuade W7
  persuādeo, persuādēre vb to persuade W7
  suādeo, suādēre vb to urge, advise W7
  suasio, suasionis n.fem suasion, persuasiveness W7
  suasus vb.ptc persuaded W7
  suavis adj suave, soft, kind, sweet W7
Vulgar Latin: assuavio, assuaviāre vb to assuage, make softer W7
New Latin: aedes n.masc temple W7
Old French: assouagier/as(o)uager/asoager vb to assuage, make softer W7/CDC
Middle French: dissuader vb to dissuade, convince not to act W7
  suave adj suave, soft W7
Old Occitan: a(s)suaviar vb to assuage CDC
Italian: soave adj soft, gentle LRC
Homeric Greek: ἧδος n.neut joy, pleasure, enjoyment LRC
  ἡδύς adj soft, sweet, pleasant LRC
Greek: a-ēdēs adj unpleasant W7
  hēdonē n.fem pleasure W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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