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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. su̯ep-, sup-   'to sleep'

Semantic Field: to Sleep; Sleep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: súan n sleep RPN
Old English: swefan vb to sleep RPN
  swef(e)n n.neut sleep, dream LRC
Middle English: sompnolent adj somnolent W7
English: hypn(o)- pfx sleep AHD
  hypnosis n sleeplike state AHD
  hypnotic adj soporific, sleep-inducing AHD/W7
  insomnia n prolonged/abnormal inability to sleep well AHD/W7
  somnolent adj soporific AHD/W7
  sopor n stupor, lethargy, deep unnatural sleep AHD/CDC
  soporific adj causing/tending to cause sleep AHD/W7
Old Saxon: sweban n dream ASD
Old Norse: sofa vb to sleep LRC
Old Icelandic: sofna vb to fall asleep RPN
  svefja vb to lull to sleep RPN
  svefna n sleep RPN
Icelandic: sofa vb to sleep ASD
  svefn/söfn n sleep, dream ASD
Danish: sove vb to sleep ASD
  søvn n sleep ASD
Swedish: sofa vb to sleep ASD
  sömn n sleep ASD
Latin: insomnia n.fem sleeplessness W7
  insomnis adj sleepless W7
  somnolentus adj somnolent W7
  somnus n.masc sleep, slumber RPN
  sōpiō, sōpīre vb to stun, put/lull to sleep RPN
  sŏpor n.masc deep sleep RPN
Late Latin: hypnoticus adj of sleep W7
Middle French: sompnolent adj somnolent, drowsy W7
French: hypnotique adj causing state of hypnose W7
  soporifique adj that induces sleep W7
Lithuanian: sãpnas n sleep, dream RPN
Latvian: sapnis n sleep LRC
Old Church Slavonic: sъnъ n.masc sleep LRC
Homeric Greek: ὕπνος n.masc sleep, slumber RPN
  ὑπνόω vb to (put to) sleep RPN
Greek: hypnōtikos adj hypnotic, re: sleep W7
Hittite: sup-zi to sleep LRC
  šu-up-pa-ri-y[a-zi] to sleep RPN
Avestan: x˅afna- n sleep RPN
  x˅ap- vb to sleep, slumber RPN
Vedic: svápati/svapiti vb to sleep, fall asleep RPN
  svápate vb.mid to sleep, fall asleep RPN
Sanskrit: svápna-ḥ n sleep, sleepiness RPN
  svāpáyati vb.caus to cause to sleep RPN
Tocharian B: ṣpäne n sleep RPN
Tocharian A: ṣpäṃ n sleep RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
mid=middle (voice)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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