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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tā-, tə-, tāi-, təi-, tī̆-; [tāu-], təu-, tū̆-   'to thaw, melt, decay, dissipate'

Semantic Field: to Spoil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: tawdd adj melting, molten RPN
Old English: þǣnan vb to moisten RPN
  þǣnian/þānian vb to be/become moist RPN
  þǣsma n yeast, leaven RPN
  þān adj moist, irrigated RPN
  þawenian vb to moisten RPN
  þāwian vb to thaw RPN
  þīnan vb to become moist RPN
  þwǣnan vb to moisten, soften RPN
  þwīnan vb to dwindle RPN
Middle English: thawen vb to thaw W7
English: eutectic adj having lowest possible melting point AHD/W7
  tabes n gradually progressive bodily wasting/emaciation AHD/CDC
  tabescent adj progressively wasting away AHD
  thaw n thawing, melting LRC
  thaw vb to (cause to) melt/unfreeze AHD/W7
Dutch: deesem n.masc leaven ASD
  dooi n thaw TLL
Old High German: deismo n.masc yeast, leaven ASD
  douwen/dewen vb to thaw, disperse, burn up W7/ASD
German: Tau n.masc thaw LRC
  tauen vb to thaw LRC
Old Icelandic: þá n thawed ground RPN
  þána vb to thaw RPN
  þeyja vb to thaw; cease RPN
  þeyr n thaw RPN
  þiðna vb to thaw, melt away RPN
  þiþinn adj thawed, free from ice RPN
  þíða vb to thaw, melt RPN
  þíðr adj thawed, not ice-bound RPN
Icelandic: þeyja vb.intrans to thaw ASD
Danish:  n/vb thaw; to thaw LRC
Swedish:  n thaw LRC
  töa vb to thaw LRC
Latin: tābeo, tābēre vb to waste away, be consumed RPN
  tābēs n.fem decay, melting; wasting disease RPN
  tābesco, tābescere vb to melt, waste away RPN
  tābum n.neut corrupt matter/moisture RPN
  Tiber, Tiberis prop.n.masc Tiber LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tajǫ, tajati vb to thaw, melt RPN
Russian: tályj adj thawed, melted RPN
Doric: τᾱ́κω vb to melt, dissipate RPN
Homeric Greek: τήκω vb to melt, waste away RPN
Greek: eu-tēktos adj easily melted W7
  tēktos adj melted W7
Armenian: tʰanam vb to moisten RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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