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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ter-, terə-, and teri-, trēi-, trī-, also teru- : treu-   'to bore, drill, rub, thresh'

Semantic Fields: to Bore; to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: truaghan n.masc wretch W7/GE
Old English: trūht n trout W7
  turnian/tyrnan vb to turn W7
  þerscold/þrescwald n.masc threshold W7
  þrǣd n.masc thread W7
  þrāwan vb.str to throw, cause to twist/turn W7/ASD
  þrēa n.fem threat, rebuke, reproof, infliction IEW/ASD
  þrescan vb to thresh W7
  ðrōwian, ðrōwade, ðrōwad vb.wk.II to suffer, endure LRC
Middle English: attournen vb to attorn W7
  attourney/atturny/aturne(ye) n attorney W7/CDC
  attricioun n attrition W7
  contrit adj contrite W7
  detriment n detriment W7
  drage/drege n dredge W7
  retournen vb to return W7
  septentrion n septentrion W7
  thrawen vb to throw W7
  thred n thread W7
  thresshen vb to thresh W7
  thresshold n threshold W7
  throwen vb to throw, cause to twist W7
  trepane n trepan W7
  tribulacion n tribulation W7
  trout n trout W7
  truant n truant W7
  turn n circuit W7
  turnen vb to turn W7
English: atresia n closure/absence of body tube/orifice AHD
  attorn vb.intrans to agree to be tenant to new owner/landlord of same property AHD/W7
  attorney n one legally appointed to transact business AHD/W7
  attrition n abrasion, rubbing things together AHD/OED
  contour n outline of curving/irregular figure AHD/W7
  contrite adj grieving/penitent for sin/shortcoming AHD/W7
  derma n dermis: sensitive mesodermic skin layer AHD/W7
  detour n deviation from direct course/usual procedure AHD/W7
  detriment n hurt, damage, injury AHD/W7
  diatribe n prolonged discourse AHD/W7
  dredge n sweetmeat: food rich in sugar AHD/W7
  dredge vb.trans to coat/cover (food) by sprinkling (e.g. with flour) AHD/W7
  drill n tool with edged/pointed end for making holes by rotating/striking W7
  drill vb to bore/pierce with drill AHD/W7
  monotreme n primitive egg-laying mammal AHD
  return vb to go/come back again AHD/W7
  septentrion n north, northern regions AHD/W7
  teredo n shipworm: marine clam AHD/W7
  terete adj approx. cylindrical but tapering at both ends AHD/W7
  Thráin prop.n Dwarf name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thrash vb to thresh, separate seeds from straw/husks by beating AHD/W7
  thread n filaments twisted together into continuous strand AHD/W7
  thresh vb to separate seed from harvested plant AHD/W7
  threshold n sill, stone/plank/timber that lies under door AHD/W7
  Thrór prop.n Dwarf king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  throw, threw, thrown vb.str to propel through air by forward motion of hand/arm AHD/W7
  toreutics n metalworking via carving/chasing/embossing AHD
  tour n shift, scheduled turn; visit TLL
  trafine/trefine n.obs trephine AHD/W7
  trauma n extrinsically caused wound/injury to living tissue AHD/W7
  trematode n parasitic flatworm (e.g. fluke) AHD/W7
  trepan n trephine AHD/W7
  trephine n surgical tool for cutting circular sections AHD/W7
  triboelectricity n electrical charge generated by friction AHD/W7
  tribology n science of surfaces in relative motion AHD
  tribulation n distress/suffering caused by oppression/persecution AHD/W7
  trite adj stale, hackneyed from overuse AHD/W7
  triturate vb.trans to grind, crush AHD/W7
  trogon n nonpasserine tropical bird AHD/W7
  trout n fresh-water food fish AHD/W7
  truant n one who shirks duty AHD/W7
  trypanosome n parasitic flagellate protozoan infesting vertebrates AHD/W7
  trypsin n proteolytic enzyme in pancreatic juice AHD/W7
  turn n rotation, revolution, act of turning about axis/center AHD/W7
  turn vb to rotate, revolve, move around axis/center AHD/W7
Old Frisian: thrēd n.masc thread ASD
Dutch: draad n.masc thread ASD
  draaijen vb to turn, twist ASD
  drillen vb to drill W7
Old Low German: thrāan vb to turn, twist ASD
  thrād n.masc thread, string ASD
Old High German: drāen vb to turn W7
  drājan vb.wk to turn, twist ASD
  drāt n.masc thread, wire W7/ASD
  dreskan vb to thresh W7
  drōen/druoen vb to suffer ASD
German: Draht n.masc thread, wire ASD
  drehen vb to turn LRC
  dreschen vb to thresh LRC
  drillen vb to drill LRC
Old Norse: Þráinn prop.n Thráin (Voluspa dwarf) LRC
  þreskjöldr n threshold W7
  Þrór prop.n Thrór (Voluspa dwarf) LRC
Old Icelandic: þrár adj firm, stubborn, obstinate, tenacious IEW/ICE
Icelandic: þráðr n.masc thread ASD
  þresköldr n.masc threshold ASD
Danish: traad n.masc thread ASD
Swedish: tråd n thread TLL
Latin: attero, atterere vb to rub against W7
  attritio, attritionis n.fem attrition, action/result of rubbing W7
  attritus vb.ptc rubbed against W7
  contero, conterere vb to grind, bruise W7
  detrimentum n.neut loss, prejudice W7
  septentrio n.masc north wind, North W7
  septentriones 7 plow oxen, 7 stars of Ursa Major/Minor W7
  teredo, teredinis n.fem teredo, wood worm W7
  teres, teretis adj rounded, well turned W7
  tergeō, tergēre vb to wipe, scour, clean RPN
  tergō, tergere vb to wipe, scour, clean RPN
  terō, terere vb to rub, wear away RPN
  tornō, tornāre vb to turn on a lathe W7
  tornus n.masc lathe W7
  tragemata sweetmeats W7
  tribulatio, tribulationis n.fem distress, suffering, trying experience W7
  tribulatus vb.ptc oppressed, afflicted W7
  tribulo, tribulāre vb to press, oppress W7
  tribulum n.neut threshing sledge W7
  triones plow oxen, stars of Ursa Major/Ursa Minor W7
  trīticum n wheat LRC
  tritura n.fem threshing, act of rubbing W7
  tritus vb.ptc rubbed W7
Late Latin: trituratus vb.ptc threshed W7
  trituro, triturāre vb to thresh W7
  trocta/tructa n.fem trout W7
Middle Latin: attornare vb to attorn CDC
Medieval Latin: attritio, attritionis n.fem attrition W7
  trepanum n.neut trepan, tool for mining W7
New Latin: derma n.fem skin layer W7
  trogon n.neut trogon W7
  Trypanosoma n.fem (genus name for) trypanosome W7
Portuguese: trigo n wheat LRC
Spanish: alrededor adv around TLL
  trigo n wheat LRC
Old French: at(t)orne n attorney CDC
  at(t)orner/at(o)urner vb to attorn W7/CDC
  attrition n attrition AHD
  destor n.masc detour, diversion W7
  destorner vb to divert W7
  torner vb to turn W7
  tour(n) n.masc turn, lathe, ring, circuit W7
  tribulacion n.fem tribulation, trying experience W7
Middle French: atorné vb.ptc legally appointed W7
  atorner vb to appoint as attorney W7
  contrit adj contrite W7
  détriment n.masc detriment, impairment W7
  dragie n.fem candy W7
  retourner vb to turn back W7
  septentrion n.masc the North W7
  tourner vb to turn W7
French: attrition n attrition CDC
  autour adv around TLL
  contour n.masc contour, outline W7
  détour n.masc detour, diversion W7
  tourner vb to turn W7
  tréphine n.fem trephine W7
Italian: attorno adv around TLL
  contornare vb to round off, sketch in outline W7
  contorno n.masc contour W7
Lithuanian: tárpas n.masc space, period LRC
  tráukti, tráukia, tráukė vb to attract LRC
  trinù, trìnti vb to rub RPN
Latvian: starp adv among, between LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tьrǫ, trěti vb to rub, wear down RPN
Greek: διατρῐβή n.fem delay; pastime, amusement LS
  δια-τρίβω vb to spend time, lit. rub between LS
  τείρω vb to rub hard, wear away RPN
  τερηδών n.fem teredo, wood worm LS
  τετραίνω vb to bore, pierce, perforate LS
  τόρνος n.masc (carpenter's) compass LS
  τράγημα n.neut dessert, sweetmeat LS
  τρᾰγῳδία n.fem tragedy LRC
  τραῦμα n.neut trauma, damage, defeat LS
  τρῆμα n.neut hole, orifice, perforation LS
  trēmatōdēs adj pierced with holes W7
  τρίβω vb to rub, thresh, wear out LRC
  τρύπᾰνον n.neut trepan, auger, piercing instrument LS
  τρῡπάω vb to bore, pierce LS
  τρύπη n.fem hole LS
  τρύω vb to rub down, wear out RPN
  τρώγω vb to gnaw, nibble LS
  τρώκτης n.masc gnawer, nibbler LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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