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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: terk-, trek-, tork-, trok-   'to torque, turn'

Semantic Field: to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þwe(o)rh/þwyrh adj cross, angry; crooked, perverse ASD
  þweorian/þwyrian vb to thwart, be adverse ASD
Middle English: thwert adv/prep thwart W7
  thwerten vb to thwart CDC
  torche n torch W7
  torment n torment W7
  tort n tort W7
  tortuous adj tortuous W7
  trussen vb to truss W7
English: athwart adv/prep crosswise, transversely, from side to side; across AHD
  contort vb to twist in violent manner AHD/W7
  distort vb.trans to twist out of true meaning/proportion AHD/W7
  extort vb.trans to wring, obtain by force/undue power/ingenuity AHD/W7
  nasturtium n herb having showy spurred flowers AHD/W7
  queer adj odd, strange, deviating from normal/expected AHD
  retort vb to return, pay back AHD/W7
  thwart adv/prep athwart; (obliquely) across/transverse AHD/W7
  thwart vb to cross, oppose, frustrate CDC
  torch n flambeau, resinous wood/twist of tow burnt to give light AHD/W7
  torment n torture (inflicted e.g. by rack/wheel) AHD/W7
  torque n force producing torsion/rotation AHD/W7
  torque n metal collar/neck-chain worn by ancient Celts/Germans AHD/W7
  torque vb.trans to turn, twist, rotate LRC
  torsade n twisted cord/ribbon used as hat ornament AHD/W7
  torsion n twisting/wrenching by exertion of force AHD/W7
  tort n wrongful act for which civil action is admissible AHD/W7
  tortuous adj winding, marked by repeated bends/twists/turns AHD/W7
  torture n infliction of intense pain AHD/W7
  truss vb.trans to bind, secure tightly AHD/W7
Middle Low German: dwer adj queer, oblique AHD
Old High German: drāhsil n turner W7
  dwerah adj athwart, oblique, transverse W7
German: Drechsler n.masc turner LRC
Old Norse: þverr adj athwart, oblique, transverse W7
Icelandic: þverr adj cross; transverse ASD
Gothic: þwairhs adj cross, angry ASD
Latin: contorqueō, contorquēre vb to turn, twist, contort W7
  contortus vb.ptc contorted W7
  distorqueō, distorquere vb to twist awry, distort W7
  distortus vb.ptc distorted W7
  extorqueō, extorquēre vb to wrench out, extort W7
  extortus vb.ptc extorted W7
  nasturtium n.neut nasturtium W7
  retorqueō, retorquēre vb to twist/throw back W7
  retortus vb.ptc thrown back W7
  tormentum n.neut torment W7
  torqueō, torquēre vb to turn, twist, torque W7
  torques n.masc torque W7
  tortuosus adj twisted, tortuous W7
  tortus adj.ptc torqued, twisted W7
Vulgar Latin: torca n.fem torch W7
Late Latin: torsus vb.ptc twisted W7
  tortura n.fem torture W7
Old French: torche n.fem torch W7
  torment n.masc pain, worry, torment W7
  trousser vb to take up W7
Middle French: tort n.masc fault W7
  tortueux adj tortuous W7
French: torque n.masc torque: Celtic necklace W7
  tors adj twisted W7
  torsade n.fem torsade, braiding by twisting W7
  torture n.fem torture W7
Greek: ἄτρακτος n.masc spindle; arrow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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