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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆-   'to swell, intumesce'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tūath n tribe, people LRC
Middle Irish: tarb n.masc bull W7/IED
Cornish: tus n people LRC
Welsh: tūd n country LRC
Gaulish: Toutonos prop.n Teuton(s) GED
Old English: butere n.fem butter, cheese W7
  þēod n folk, people LRC
  þēod-cyning n.masc lit. folk-king LRC
  þēoden n.str.masc king, lord, God GED
  þēoh n.neut thigh W7
  þēostre/þēoster adj dark ASD
  þīestre/þīstre adj dark ASD
  þolian vb to bear W7
  þol(l) n.masc thole W7
  þūma n.masc thumb W7
  þūsend nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
  þȳmel n.masc thimble, thumbstall, fingerstall W7
Middle English: bitoure n bittern W7
  butter n butter W7
  Duch prop.adj/n Dutch W7
  Taurus prop.n Taurus W7
  thigh n thigh W7
  tholen vb to thole W7
  tholle n thole W7
  thoumbe n thumb W7
  thoume n thumb W7
  thousand nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
  thymbyl n thimble W7
  tombe n tomb W7
  total adj total W7
English: bittern n small/medium-sized nocturnal heron AHD/W7
  butter n solid food emulsion made by churning milk/cream AHD/W7
  butyric adj re: a certain isomeric fatty acid AHD/W7
  creosote n clear/yellowish oily liquid phenolic compounds made from wood tar AHD/W7
  detumescence n diminution of swelling AHD/CDC
  dictyosome n plant cell Golgi apparatus AHD
  Dutch prop.adj/n re: the Netherlands AHD/W7
  Éothéod prop.n Eorl's descendants in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  factotum n employee with misc. duties AHD/W7
  intumesce vb.intrans to swell, enlarge AHD/W7
  obturate vb.trans to close, obstruct AHD/W7
  Plattdeutsch prop.n Low German LRC
  prosoma n anterior region of invertebrate body AHD/W7
  protuberance n knob, bulge, swelling AHD
  protuberant adj re: protuberance LRC
  protuberate vb to swell, bulge, be prominent/protuberant AHD
  quark n soft creamy acid-cured central European cheese AHD
  soma n all of organism except germ cells AHD/W7
  -some n.sfx body AHD/W7
  sorites n abridged series of syllogisms AHD/W7
  sorus n clustered plant reproductive bodies AHD/W7
  soteriology n theology dealing with salvation AHD/W7
  taurine adj bovine, re: bull AHD/W7
  taurine n colorless crystalline compound in muscle juices, esp. of invertebrates AHD/W7
  taurocholic adj re: deliquescent acid occurring as sodium salt in bile of man/ox/various carnivores AHD/W7
  Taurus prop.n zodiacal constellation AHD/W7
  teetotum n spinning top/toy (usu. inscribed with letters) AHD/W7
  Teuton prop.n person in (ancient) Germanic group LRC
  Théoden prop.n 17th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Théodred prop.n Theoden's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Théodwyn prop.n Eowyn's mother in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thigh n segment of vertebrate hind limb from hip to knee AHD/W7
  thimble n finger cap/cover used in sewing to push needle AHD/W7
  thole n pin, peg, oarlock AHD/W7
  thole vb to bear, endure AHD/W7
  Thorin prop.n dwarf a.k.a. Oakenshield in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  thousand nbr.card 1000 AHD/W7
  thumb n first digit of primate hand (opposable to other fingers) AHD/W7
  tomb n grave, cairn, barrow, funeral mound AHD/W7
  toreador n torero, bullfighter AHD/W7
  torero n toreador, bullfighter AHD/W7
  total adj entire, comprising/constituting the whole AHD/W7
  truffle n European subterranean edible fruiting fungus body AHD/W7
  tuber n short fleshy usu. underground plant stem AHD/W7
  tumefacient adj tumefying, producing swelling/tumefaction AHD
  tumefy vb to (cause to) swell, become tumorous AHD
  tumescent adj somewhat swollen AHD/W7
  tumid adj enlarged, swollen, marked by swelling AHD/W7
  tumor n swollen/distended part AHD/W7
  tumorous adj swollen, protuberant, re: tumor LRC
  tumulus n artificial mound/hillock (e.g. over tomb) AHD/W7
  tutti adj all AHD/W7
  tylectomy n surgical removal of cyst/tumor AHD
  tylosis n skin/eyelid inflammation AHD
  tyrosine n phenolic amino acid AHD/W7
British English: tumour n tumor LRC
Old Frisian: thiach n.neut thigh ASD
  thiade n.fem men, people ASD
  thūma n.masc thumb ASD
  thūsend nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
Middle Dutch: duutsch adj Dutch W7
Dutch: dij n thigh TLL
  dol n.masc thole ASD
  duim n thumb TLL
  duister adj dark LRC
  duitsch n German W7
  duizend nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
  Platduitsch prop.n Plattdeutsch W7
Old Saxon: thiod(a) n.fem people ASD
  thiod-kuning n.masc king, monarch, sovereign ASD
  thūsundig nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
  þiodan n.str.masc prince, ruler, people's lord GED
Old Low German: thio n.neut thigh ASD
  thūmo n.masc thumb ASD
  thūsint nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
Low German: thiad n.fem nation, people ASD
Old High German: butera n butter W7
  dioh n.neut thigh, hip W7/ASD
  diot(a) n.fem nation, people ASD
  diutisc adj Dutch W7
  dūmo n.masc thumb ASD
  dūsunt/tūsunt nbr.card thousand (1000) W7/ASD
  truhtīn n lord, ruler GED
  tysyacha nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
  þūmo n thumb W7
German: Butter n.neut butter LRC
  Daumen n.masc thumb LRC
  Deutsch n.neut German LRC
  deutsch adj German LRC
  Kartoffel n.fem potato TLL
  kreosot adj creosote W7
  Plattdeutsch prop.n Plattdeutsch W7
  Tausend nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Old Norse: þoka n cloud LRC
  þollr n.masc tree (the ash Yggdrasil); post, pillar; beam LRC
  þora(ð) vb to dare LRC
  Þorinn prop.n Thorin (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
  þorinn n bold/audacious one LRC
  þýða, þýðadd vb to interpret as, make equivalent LRC
Old Icelandic: drōttinn n prince GED
  þjóð n people LRC
  þjōðann n.str.masc king, prince GED
Icelandic: þjóð n.fem nation, people ASD
  þjóðann n.masc king, ruler, great man ASD
  þjóðkonungr n.masc king, monarch, sovereign ASD
  þollr n.masc thole, wooden peg ASD
  þumall n.masc thumb (of glove) ASD
  þúsund nbr.card.fem thousand (1000) ASD
Danish: kartoffel n potato TLL
  taage n fog TLL
  tol n.masc thole ASD
  tolle-gang n.masc thole, row-lock ASD
  tomme n.masc thumb ASD
  tommelfinger n thumb TLL
  tusinde nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Swedish: tumme n.masc thumb ASD
  tusen nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Gothic: þiuda n.str.fem nation, people; [pl.] heathens, Gentiles LRC
  þiudans n.masc chief, prince, king GED/ASD
  þiudisko adv like the heathen W7/GED
  þūsundi nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Oscan: touto n.masc city W7
Umbrian: touto adj whole, entire LRC
Latin: butyrum n.neut butter W7
  dominus n.masc lord GED
  domus n.fem house GED/IEW
  intumesco, intumescere vb to swell up W7
  obsturo, obturāre vb to close (with something) W7
  obturatus vb.ptc closed with something W7
  Portūnus prop.n.masc Portunus (gate/harbor deity) GED
  portus n.masc entry, port GED
  sorites n.masc type of argument W7
  taurinus adj of a bull W7
  Taurus prop.n.masc Taurus, lit. Bull W7
  taurus n.masc bull W7
  Teutoni the Teutons W7
  Tiberīnus prop.n.masc Tiberinus GED
  Tiberis prop.n Tiber (river) GED
  totus, tota, totum adj all, whole, entire LRC
  tribūnus n.masc tribune, chieftain GED
  tribus n.fem tribe GED
  tūber n.neut lump, swelling, protuberance RPN
  tumeō, tumēre vb to swell, be swollen RPN
  tumescens, tumescentis vb.pres.ptc swelling W7
  tumēscō, tumēscere vb to begin swelling W7
  tumidus adj swollen W7
  tumor n.masc swelling W7
  tumulus n.masc tomb W7
Vulgar Latin: tufera n.fem truffle W7
Late Latin: taurarius n.masc bullfighter W7
  tumba n.fem tomb W7
Medieval Latin: totalis adj re: wholeness W7
New Latin: factotum n.neut person who does everything W7
  prosoma n.fem anterior region of invertebrate body W7
  sorus n.masc clustered plant reproductive bodies W7
Spanish: toreador n.masc toreador, bull-fighter W7
  torear vb to fight bulls W7
  torero adj re: bull(s) W7
  toro n.masc bull W7
Anglo-French: tumbe n.fem tomb W7
Middle French: butor n.masc bird of prey W7
  total n.masc total W7
  truffe n.fem truffle W7
French: butyrique adj re: butter W7
Old Provençal: trufa n.fem truffle W7
Italian: tartufo n truffle LRC
  tutto, tutti adj all, whole, every W7
Old Prussian: tauto n country LRC
Lithuanian: taukaĩ n (animal) fat RPN
  tumė́ti vb to become thick RPN
  tūkstantis nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Latvian: tàuta n people LRC
  tvaikonis n.masc steamboat LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tvarogŭ n quark, curds, cottage cheese AHD
Russian: tyju vb to become fat LRC
Homeric Greek: σώζω vb to save, preserve, remember LS
  σῶς adj safe, sure, sound LS
  τῡρός n.masc cheese LS
Greek: βού-τῡρον n.neut butter LS
  σῶμα n.neut body LRC
  σωρείτης n.masc sorites LS
  σωρός n.masc heap LS
  σωτήρ n.masc savior, preserver LRC
  σωτήριον n.neut salvation LS
  σωφροσύνη n.fem discretion, moderation LRC
  ταῦρος n.masc bull LRC
  τύλος n.masc knob, knot, callus LS
  τύμβος n.masc tomb LS
Hittite: tuzzi- n army, people LRC
Armenian: t'iv n number LRC
Avestan: tav- n ability LRC
  tūiri- n whey W7
Sanskrit: tavas adj strong RPN
  tavīti vb to be strong LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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