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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tong-, *teng-   'to think, feel'

Semantic Field: to Think, Reflect

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: beþencan vb.wk.I to bethink AHD
  or-þanc adj cunning, skillful ASD
  or-þanc n.masc/neut device, artifice, skillful work/contrivance ASD
  þanc n.masc thought; thanks, grace, mercy, gratitude LRC
  þencan, þōhte, þōht vb.wk.I to think, intend, resolve LRC
  þōht n.masc mind, thought W7
  þyncan, þūhte, geþūht vb.wk.I to seem, appear; think LRC
Middle English: bithinken vb to bethink AHD
  thank n thank W7
  thenken vb to think W7
  thought n thought W7
English: bethink, bethought vb.irr.trans to recall, remember AHD/W7
  methinks vb.3.sg it seems to me AHD/W7
  Orthanc prop.n Saruman's tower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thank n gratitude, kindly/grateful thought AHD/W7
  think, thought vb.irr to form/have in mind AHD/W7
  thought n cogitation, act/process of thinking AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: thank/thonk n.masc thanks, thought, grace, pleasure ASD
  thanka/thenkia vb to think ASD
Dutch: danken vb to thank LRC
  denken vb to think LRC
  gedenkteeken n monument TLL
Old Saxon: thank n.masc thanks, grace, pleasure ASD
  thenkian vb to think ASD
  thuukian vb to seem, appear ASD
Low German: thenkan/thāhta vb to think ASD
Old High German: dank/danc/thanc n.masc thanks, gratitude W7/ASD
  denken/denchen vb to think W7/ASD
  dunchan vb to seem, appear ASD
  urdanc/urdank n.str.masc idea, invention, fabrication LRC
German: Dank n.masc gratitude LRC
  danken vb to thank LRC
  denken vb to think LRC
  Denkmal n monument TLL
  Gedanke n.masc thought LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: þykkja, þótti vb to seem, be thought LRC
Icelandic: þekkja vb to perceive, know ASD
  þōttr/þōtti n.masc thought, mind ASD
  þykkja vb to seem, appear ASD
  þökk n.masc thanks, pleasure ASD
Danish: takke vb to thank LRC
  tænke vb to think LRC
Swedish: tacka vb to thank LRC
  tänka vb to think LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: þag(g)kjan vb to think, consider, consult, debate ASD
  þug(g)kjan vb.wk.I to seem, appear ASD

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
adj=adjective
irr=irregular
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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