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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tu̯er- : tur-, and tu̯r̥-   'to twirl, turn'

Semantic Field: to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: storm n.masc storm, tempest; attack LRC
  styrian vb.wk to stir W7/ASD
  þrymm n.masc host; power; glory, renown LRC
Middle English: destourben vb to disturb W7
  disturben vb to disturb W7
  perturben vb to perturb W7
  stiren vb to stir W7
  storm n storm W7
  troublen vb to trouble W7
English: disturb vb to interrupt, interfere with AHD/W7
  perturb vb.trans to disquiet, disturb greatly in mind AHD/W7
  stir vb to cause movement/change in position AHD/W7
  storm n atmospheric disturbance attended by wind/rain/hail/sleet/snow etc. AHD/W7
  storm vb to blow/rain/hail/sleet/snow with violence W7
  Stormcrow prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  trouble vb to disturb, worry, agitate mentally/spiritually AHD/W7
  turbid adj thick/opaque with roiled sediment AHD/W7
  turbine n rotary engine actuated by fluid impulse/reaction AHD/W7
  twirl vb to spin, revolve rapidly W7
Dutch: storm n storm TLL
Old Saxon: heru-thrummi n violence ASD
  storm n storm; attack, tumult ASD
Old High German: dweran vb to stir W7
  sturm n storm; attack W7/ASD
Middle High German: stürn vb to incite W7
German: Sturm n.masc storm LRC
  stürmen vb to storm LRC
Old Norse: þruma, þrumað vb to hover, stand motionless; remain silent LRC
  þurs n.masc giant LRC
Icelandic: stormr n storm, tempest; tumult, uproar ASD
  styrr n stir, tumult, disturbance ASD
  þrymr n.masc noise, alarm, battle ASD
Norwegian: tvirla vb to twirl W7
Danish: storm n storm TLL
Swedish: storm n storm TLL
Latin: disturbo, disturbāre vb to bother, throw into disorder W7
  perturbo, perturbare vb to perturb, throw into confusion W7
  turba n.fem crowd, confusion W7
  turbido, turbidāre vb to trouble W7
  turbidus adj turbid, confused W7
  turbō, turbāre vb to disturb W7
  turbō, turbinis n.masc top, whirlwind; that which whirls W7
Vulgar Latin: turbulo, turbulāre vb to trouble W7
Old French: destourber vb to disturb, bother W7
  tourbler vb to trouble W7
  troubler vb to trouble W7
Middle French: perturber vb to perturb, disturb W7
French: turbine n.fem turbine W7
Greek: τύρβη n.fem tumult, disorder, confusion LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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