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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: upér, upéri   'over, above'

Semantic Field: High


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: for adv/prep up, over W7
Old English: ofer/ofor adv/prep over W7/ASD
Middle English: iper- pfx hyper- W7
  over adv/prep over W7
  somete n summit W7
  soverain adj/n sovereign W7
  summe n sum W7
  superior adj superior W7
  supernal adj supernal W7
  sur- pfx sur- W7
English: hyper- pfx high, beyond, super- AHD/W7
  hyperbaton n figure of speech deviating from normal word order AHD
  hypergolic adj re: self-igniting rocket propellant AHD
  hyperkinesia n pathologically increased muscular movement AHD
  hyperpnea n abnormally deep/rapid breathing AHD
  orlop n lowest deck of ship AHD
  over adv/prep across barrier/intervening space AHD/W7
  Overhill prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sopranino n musical instrument higher in pitch than soprano AHD
  soprano n highest voice (part) AHD/W7
  soubrette n coquettish maid/frivolous young woman (comedy) AHD/W7
  sovereign adj reigning over, possessed of supreme power AHD/W7
  sovereign n one reigning, possessing supreme power AHD/W7
  sum n specified/indefinite amount (of money) AHD/W7
  summit n top, apex AHD/W7
  super- pfx over, above, greater in degree/quality/quantity AHD/W7
  superable adj surmountable, able to be overcome/conquered AHD/W7
  superb adj noble, majestic AHD/W7
  supererogate vb to do more than required by need/duty/obligation AHD/W7
  superfetate vb to conceive again while pregnant AHD/CDC
  superior adj upper, better, situated higher up AHD/W7
  supernal adj heavenly, being/coming from on high AHD/W7
  supra- pfx super- AHD/W7
  supreme adj highest in rank/authority AHD/W7
  sur- pfx over, super- AHD/W7
  surveillance n spying, close observation of group/person AHD
  surveillant adj exercising surveillance AHD
British English: supremo n one highest in command/authority AHD
Old Frisian: over adv/prep over ASD
Dutch: boven prep above, over TLL
  over prep over, above TLL
Old Saxon: oƀar adv/prep over ASD
Old High German: ubar/ubir adv/prep over, above, beyond W7
German: über prep over, above, about LRC
Old Norse: yfir adv/prep over, above, beyond LRC
Icelandic: ofr- adv/prep over ASD
Danish: over prep above, over TLL
Swedish: över prep above, over TLL
Gothic: ufar adv/prep over, above, beyond LRC
  ufarō prep over, above, upon LRC
Oscan: supruis adv/prep over, above W7
Umbrian: super adv/prep over, above W7
Latin: hyper- pfx hyper- W7
  insuper adv above, on top LRC
  summa n.fem sum, highest point W7
  summus, summa, summum adj.sup highest W7
  super- pfx super- W7
  super adv/prep over, above W7
  superabilis adj possible to beat W7
  superbus adj proud, excellent W7
  superferō, superferre vb to carry over, raise high W7
  superior adj.comp better W7
  supernus adj of above W7
  supero, superare vb to surmount W7
  superus, supera, superum adj.comp upper, higher, re: gods LRC
  supra- pfx supra-, beyond, earlier W7
  supra prep above, beyond, earlier W7
  supremus adj.sup highest W7
Vulgar Latin: superanus adj of above W7
Portuguese: sôbre prep over, about, concerning TLL
Old French: somete n.masc summit W7
  soverain adj/n.masc sovereign W7
  sum n.fem top W7
  summe n.fem summit W7
  sur- pfx sur- W7
Middle French: somete n.masc summit W7
  supérieur adj.comp superior W7
  supernal adj of above W7
French: soubrette n.fem maid, soubrette W7
Provençal: soubra vb to surmount, exceed W7
  soubret adj coy W7
  soubreto n.fem soubrette W7
Italian: sobre prep over, about, concerning TLL
  sopra prep on, upon, above W7
  soprano n.masc soprano W7
  sovra prep on, upon, above W7
Greek: ὑπέρ prep/adv for, over, above LRC
  ὑπέρᾱ n upper rope GED
  ὕπερος n pestle GED
Classical Armenian: veray prep on, over LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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