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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ādh-, u̯ədh-   'to go, wade, stride, march'

Semantic Fields: to Go; to Walk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wadan, wōd, wōdon, waden vb.str.VI to wade, pass, proceed, stride over ASD
Middle English: invaden vb to invade W7
  waden vb to wade W7
English: Entwade prop.n Rohan river fords in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  evade vb to escape, slip away AHD/W7
  invade vb.trans to enter for conquest/plunder AHD/W7
  pervade vb.trans to become diffused throughout AHD/W7
  vadose adj re: water/solutions in earth's crust above groundwater AHD/W7
  vamoose vb.intrans to decamp, depart quickly AHD/W7
  wade vb to step in/through (e.g. water) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wada vb to wade, go, pass, proceed ASD
Old High German: wat n.neut ford, shallow water ASD
  watan vb to wade, go, pass, proceed W7
German: waten vb to wade LRC
Old Norse: vaða vb to wade/pass through LRC
Icelandic: vað n.neut ford ASD
  vaða vb to wade, go, pass, proceed ASD
Latin: evado, evadere vb to evade, get out W7
  invado, invadere vb to invade, attack, rush in W7
  pervado, pervadere vb to pervade, go through W7
  vādo, vādere vb to go, wade, rush, hasten W7
  vadosus adj shallow W7
  vadum n.neut ford, shallows W7
Spanish: vamos let us go W7
Middle French: évader vb to evade W7
Classical Armenian: gam vb to come, go LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
VI=class 6
imp=imperative (mood)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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