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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ā̆gh-, suā̆gh-   'to cry, shriek, sough'

Semantic Field: to Cry, Weep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swēg n.masc sound, noise LRC
  swēgan vb.wk to sound, make noise GED
  swœg n.masc sound, noise GED
  swōgan, swēog, swēogon, swōgen vb.str.VII to sough, roar, resound LRC
Middle English: ecco n echo W7
  swoughen vb to sough W7
English: catechize vb.trans to teach/instruct systematically AHD/W7
  echo n reflection/repetition of sound AHD/W7
  sough vb.intrans to make sighing/moaning sound AHD/W7
British English: catechise vb.trans to catechize LRC
Old Saxon: swōgan vb.wk to sough, roar GED
Low German: swōgen vb.wk to sough GED
Old Icelandic: svagla vb.wk to splash GED
  sœgr n.masc noise GED
Gothic: ga-swogjan vb to sough, sigh W7/GED
  *swegnjan vb.wk.I to rejoice GED
  swōgjan vb to sough, groan ASD
Latin: echo n.fem sound, echo W7
  vāgio, vāgire vb to cry, wail, whimper GED
Late Latin: catechizo, catechizāre vb to catechize, receive Christian instruction W7
Middle French: echo n.masc echo W7
Lithuanian: kaũkti vb to howl GED/IEW
  sugti vb to howl GED/IEW
  suókti vb to sing GED
  svagėti vb to sound GED/IEW
Latvian: sũdzêt vb to mourn GED/IEW
  svadzêt vb to rattle GED/IEW
Doric: ἀχᾱ́ n noise GED
  ἰαχέω vb to cry GED
Greek: ἠχέω vb to ring, sound, resound LRC
  ἠχή n.fem sound, noise, echo GED
  ἦχος n.masc sound LRC
  κατηχέω vb to sound, catechize LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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