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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eg̑-   'fresh, strong'

Semantic Field: Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ā-wacen adj awake CDC
  ā-wacian vb to awake CDC
  a-wæcnian vb to awaken W7
  wacan, wōc, wōcon, wacen vb.str to wake, awake, be born, come into being W7/ASD
  wacen n.fem watch, vigil, wakefulness W7
  wacian vb.wk to wake, be awake W7/ASD
  wæccan vb.wk to watch, wake W7/ASD
  *wæcnian vb to waken W7/ASD
  wicca n.masc wizard, sorcerer, necromancer W7/AHD
  wicce n.fem witch, sorceress W7
  wīgle n.neut divination W7
Middle English: awake(n) adj awake CDC
  awak(e)nen vb to awaken W7/CDC
  awak(i)en vb to awake CDC
  bewicchen vb to bewitch AHD
  vigilant adj vigilant W7
  vigile n vigil W7
  vigor n vigor W7
  wacchen vb to watch W7
  waite n watchman; wait, public musician W7
  waiten vb to wait W7
  waken vb to wake W7
  wakien vb to wake W7
  waknen vb to waken W7
  waughten vb to guard, convoy W7
  wicche n witch W7
  wicke adj wicked W7
  wicked adj wicked W7
English: awake, awoke, awaken/awoken vb.str to cease sleeping, arouse from sleep W7
  awake adj alert, aroused from sleep W7
  awaken vb to awake W7
  bewitch vb to charm, affect by witchcraft W7
  bivouac n encampment under little/no shelter AHD/W7
  ravigote n vinegar sauce seasoned with herbs/capers/onion AHD
  reveille n bugle call signaling day's first military formation AHD/W7
  surveillance n spying, close observation of group/person AHD
  surveillant adj exercising surveillance AHD
  vedette n mounted sentinel stationed before pickets AHD/W7
  vegetable n plant cultivated for edible part(s) AHD
  velocity n speed, quickness of motion AHD/W7
  vigil n watch kept on eve of religious feast AHD/W7
  vigilant adj alertly watchful AHD/W7
  vigilante n member of vigilance committee AHD/W7
  vigor n active force/strength of mind/body AHD/W7
  waft vb to go/move lightly by impulse of wind/waves AHD/W7
  wait n English public musician employed to play/sing for procession/entertainment AHD/W7
  wait vb to await, remain in expectation AHD/W7
  wake, woke, woken vb.str to be/remain awake AHD/W7
  waken vb to awake AHD/W7
  watch vb to keep vigil (as devotional exercise) AHD/W7
  Watcher prop.n Moria lake creature in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Watchwood prop.n vigilant forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Wicca prop.n pagan nature religion AHD
  Wiccan prop.adj re: Wicca, witchcraft AHD
  wicked adj evil, morally bad AHD/W7
  witch n wizard, sorceress AHD/W7
  Witch-lord prop.n Nazgûl Lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: wekken n to wake someone up LRC
  wekker n waker, alarm clock TLL
Old Saxon: wakōn vb to wake, watch, be awake ASD
Old Low German: wakōn vb to wake, watch, be awake ASD
Middle Low German: wachten vb to watch, guard W7
Low German: biwake n bivouac, lit. at guard W7
  wake n guard W7
Old High German: arwachen vb to awake CDC
  wahhōn vb to wake, watch, be awake ASD
  wahta vb to watch W7
  wīh adj holy W7
Middle High German: erwachen vb to awake CDC
  wicken vb to bewitch W7
German: bewachen vb to guard LRC
  erwachen vb to awake CDC
  wachen vb to be awake LRC
  Wecker n waker, alarm clock TLL
Old Norse: vaka vb to watch, be/stay awake LRC
  vakna vb to awaken W7
  vekja, vakti vb to rouse, waken LRC
Danish: vågne vb to wake up LRC
Swedish: vakna vb.intrans to wake up, be woken LRC
  väcka vb.trans to wake someone up LRC
Latin: vegeo, vegēre vb to rouse, be active W7
  veho, vehere vb to carry W7
  velocitas, velocitatis n.fem velocity, rapidity W7
  velox, velocis adj quick, swift, rapid W7
  vigeo, vigēre vb to be vigorous W7
  vigil adj awake, watchful W7
  vigilans, vigilantis adj/vb.ptc vigilant, staying awake W7
  vigilia n.fem watch, vigil, wakefulness W7
  vigilō, vigilāre vb to keep watch, stay awake W7
  vigor n.masc vigor, strength W7
Vulgar Latin: exvigilō, exvigilāre vb to keep watch, stay awake W7
Late Latin: vigilia n.fem vigil W7
Spanish: vela n.fem watch, vigil W7
  velar vb to keep watch W7
  vigilante adj vigilant W7
Old French: vigile n.fem watch, vigil W7
Middle French: velocité n.fem velocity, rapidity W7
  vigilant adj vigilant, awake W7
  vigor n.fem vigor, strength W7
French: bivouac n.masc bivouac W7
  éveiller vb to awaken W7
  réveiller vb to awaken W7
  vedette n.fem star of play W7
Italian: vedetta n.fem watch, sentinel W7
  veletta n.fem woman's veil; look-out W7/CID


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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