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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯ei-, u̯ei̯ə- : u̯ī̆-   'to bend, turn, wind'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Turn; to Wind, Wrap

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: fiar adj oblique W7
English  
Old English: sǣ-wār n seaware, seaweed ASD
  wār n ware OED
  wīr n.masc wire, metal thread W7
  wīði(n)g n.masc withy W7/ASD
  wiððe n.fem withe, cord, thong W7
Middle English: garland n garland W7
  iris n iris W7
  virole n virl, ferrule W7
  wire n wire W7
  withe n withe W7
  withy n withy W7
English: exine n outer layer of wall of spore/pollen grain AHD
  ferrule n strengthening (metal) ring/cap around shaft AHD/W7
  garland n wreath, chaplet AHD/W7
  inion n projecting point of occipital bone AHD
  inosine n an RNA nucleoside AHD
  inosite n inositol AHD/W7
  inositol n crystalline stereoisomeric cyclic alcohol AHD/W7
  inotropic adj affecting muscle contraction AHD
  iridaceous adj re: iris plant family AHD/W7
  iridium n hard brittle heavy silver-white metal AHD/W7
  Iris prop.n gods' messenger (Greek mythology) LRC
  iris n rainbow; flower; colored part of eye AHD/W7
  iritis n eye (iris) inflammation AHD
  seaware n sea wrack used like manure AHD/W7
  vise n tool with jaws for holding work AHD/W7
  viticulture n grape cultivation AHD/W7
  vitta n oil tube in plants of carrot family AHD/W7
  ware n seaware, seaweed OED
  wire n metal in form of thread/slender rod AHD/W7
  withe n slender flexible twig/branch AHD/W7
  withy n willow AHD/W7
  Withywindle prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: wiþþe n.fem withe, cord, thong ASD
North Frisian: wier n.neut ware OED
Dutch: wier n.neut ware OED
Old High German: wiara n fine gold W7
  wīda n withy W7
German: Eingeweide n intestines TLL
  Weide n.fem withy LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: veggr n.masc wattle wall KNW
Icelandic: viðja n.fem withe, cord, thong ASD
  víðir n withy ASD
  vírr n.masc wire ASD
Danish: væg n wall TLL
Swedish: vägg n indoor wall TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: baurgs-waddjus n.masc city wall KGW
  inwindiþa n.str.fem injustice LRC
Italic  
Latin: iris, iridis n.fem rainbow, iris plant W7
  Iris n.fem Iris, messenger of Zeus W7
  vieo, viēre vb to plait W7
  viriola n.fem bracelet W7
  vitis n.fem vine W7
  vitta n.fem fillet W7
New Latin: iridium n.neut iridium W7
Middle French: garlande n.fem garland W7
  virole n.fem ferrule, bracelet W7
  vis n.fem screw W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: įvairùs, įvairì adj various, different LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: Ἶρις prop.n.fem Iris LS
  ἶρις n.fem iris LS
  ἴς n.fem nerve, sinew IEW

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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