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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯eik-   'force, energy (in battle, victory, etc.)'

Semantic Fields: Strong, Mighty, Powerful; Battle (n); Victory


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wīg n.neut war, strife LRC
  wīgan vb to fight W7
  wīgend n.masc warrior LRC
  wīg-plega n.masc battle, lit. war-play LRC
Middle English: convicten vb to convict W7
  evicten vb to evict W7
  venquissen vb to vanquish W7
  victor n victor W7
English: convict vb.trans to find/prove guilty AHD/W7
  convince vb.trans to overcome by argument AHD/W7
  evict vb.trans to recover (property) from person by legal process AHD/W7
  evince vb.trans to show, constitute evidence of AHD/W7
  Ordovician adj re: geologic period between Cambrian/Silurian LRC
  vanquish vb.trans to subdue completely, overcome in battle AHD/W7
  victor n winner, one who defeats enemy/opponent AHD/W7
  victory n overcoming of enemy/antagonist W7
  vincible adj surmountable, able to be subdued/overcome AHD/W7
  wight adj valiant, stalwart AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wīch n.neut war, fight, battle, conflict ASD
Old Saxon: wīg n.neut war, fight, battle, conflict ASD
Old High German: wīch/wīcg n.neut war, fight, battle ASD
  wīhantero vb to fight, battle ASD
Old Norse: vega vb to smite, fight, kill, slay; lift LRC
  vīgr adj skilled in fighting W7
Icelandic: víg n.neut war, fight, battle, conflict ASD
Gothic: weihan vb to fight, battle ASD
Latin: convictus vb.ptc convicted W7
  convinco, convincere vb to prove, convict W7
  evinco, evincere vb to vanquish, win a point W7
  Ordovices ancient people in northern Wales W7
  victor n.masc victor, victorious leader W7
  victus vb.ptc lived W7
  vincibilis adj vincible W7
  vinco, vincere vb to win, conquer W7
Late Latin: evictus vb.ptc evicted W7
  evinco, evincere vb to evict W7
New Latin: victor n.masc victor W7
  Victoria prop.n.fem Victoria: queen of England W7
Middle French: veintre vb to conquer W7
  venquis vb.ptc vanquished W7
Old Church Slavonic: věkъ n.masc age LRC
Albanian: fitore n.fem victory LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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