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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. u̯eik-, u̯eig-, extended form of u̯ei-   'to bend, curve; exchange, pass around'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wāg/wǣg n.masc wough, (wattle) wall KEW/ASD
  wīcan vb to yield W7
  wice n.masc wych AHD/ASD
  wīcing n.masc viking, sea robber ASD
  wīcing-sceaþa n.masc viking ASD
  wīcing-sceaþe n.fem piracy ASD
  wicu/wucu n.fem week LRC
Middle English: vecche n vetch W7
  vicar n vicar W7
  vice- pfx vice- W7
  vis- pfx vice- W7
  weike adj weak W7
  weke n week W7
  wiker n wicker W7
  wiket n wicket W7
English: vetch n herbaceous twining leguminous plant AHD/W7
  vicar n one serving as agent/substitute AHD/W7
  vicarious adj delegated, serving instead of someone/something else AHD/W7
  vice- pfx one who takes place of AHD/W7
  vicissitude n mutability, natural change AHD/W7
  viking n pirate, plunderer, seafaring marauder W7
  weak adj lacking strength AHD/W7
  week n seven-day period AHD/W7
  wicker n withe, small pliant twig/osier AHD/W7
  wicket n small gate/door AHD/W7
  wough n.obs partition, indoor wall, house wall OED
  wych n type of elm (with pliant branches) AHD
Old Frisian: wāch n wough OED
  wīka vb to yield, give way ASD
  wike n.fem week ASD
Middle Dutch: wiket n wicket W7
Old Saxon: wīkan vb to yield, give way ASD
Old Low German: wika n.fem week ASD
Old High German: wehha/wohha n.fem week W7/ASD
  wīchan vb to yield, give way ASD
German: weich adj weak, soft, pliant TLL
  Woche n.fem week TLL
Old Norse: veikr adj weak W7
  vika n.fem week LRC
  vík n.fem creek, inlet, small bay ODE/ICE
  víkingr n.masc viking, freebooter ODE/ICE
Old Icelandic: víking n.fem piracy, freebooting voyage ICE
  vīkva vb to move, turn; yield, recede IEW
Icelandic: vika n.fem week ASD
  víkja vb to yield, give way ASD
Danish: vig n creek, inlet, small bay ICE
Swedish: vecka n week TLL
  vek adj weak TLL
  vik n bay TLL
  vikker n wicker, willow W7
Gothic: waíhsta n.wk.masc corner LRC
  wikō n.fem week ASD
Latin: vicarius adj replacing, in replacement W7
  vice adj in alternance W7
  vicia n.fem vetch W7
  vicis n.fem stead, change, alternation W7
  vicissim adv in turn W7
  vicissitudo n.fem misadventure W7
  vincio, vincīre vb to bind W7
Late Latin: vice- pfx in turn, in replacement W7
Old North French: veche n.fem vetch W7
Middle French: vice- pfx in turn, vicarious W7
  vicissitude n.fem vicissitude, misadventure W7
Italian: invece adv instead TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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