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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯endh-   'to turn, wind, wend'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: oðwindan, oðwand, oðwundon, oðwunden vb.str.III to escape LRC
  wandrian vb to wander W7
  wendan vb to wend W7
  windan, wond, wundon, wunden vb.str.III to wind, twist, roll W7/ASD
  windel n.masc basket ASD
Middle English: wand n wand W7
  wandren vb to wander W7
  wenden vb to wend W7
  went vb.pret/ptc went W7
  winden vb to wind W7
  wynd(l)as n windlass W7
English: Vandal prop.n E Germanic tribe that sacked Rome in 455 AHD/W7
  vandal n one who defaces/damages/destroys property W7
  wand n verge, slender rod/staff AHD/W7
  wander vb to move without fixed aim/goal/course AHD/W7
  Wandlimb prop.n Entwife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wend, went vb.wk to go, travel, direct one's course AHD/W7
  wind, wound vb.str to turn, warp, bend AHD/W7
  windlass n hoisting/hauling machine AHD/W7
  Withywindle prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: wenda vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
Dutch: ingewanden n intestines TLL
  wand n wall TLL
Old Saxon: wendian vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
  windan vb.intrans to wind, roll, plait ASD
Old High German: Orendil/Erentil prop.n medieval hero, lit. luminous wanderer IEW
  want n wall KDW
  wenten vb to wend, turn W7
  wintan vb to wind, roll, twist W7
Middle High German: wandern vb to rove, roam, wander W7/ASD
German: Wand n.fem wall (of room) TLL
  wandern vb to wander LRC
  winden vb to wind LRC
Langobardic: Auriwandalo prop.n Lombardic prince, lit. luminous wanderer LRC
Old Norse: Aurvandil prop.n Prose Edda hero, lit. luminous wanderer ICE
  vandi n.masc habit, custom LRC
  vinda vb to wind W7
  vindāss n windlass W7
  vöndr n wand W7
Icelandic: venda vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
  vinda vb.intrans to wind, twist; hurl, thrust ASD
Gothic: bi-windan vb.intrans to wrap, cover ASD
  us-windan vb.intrans to punish ASD
  wandjan vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
Umbrian: ohavendu (let him) turn aside W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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