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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. u̯er-   'to bend, turn, wrap'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: frith- pfx against LRC
Old English: gewrinclian vb to wind, turn W7
  stǣlwierðe adj stalwart, serviceable W7
  -wrinclian sfx wrinkle W7
Middle English: pevish adj peevish, spiteful W7
  prose n prose W7
  ribald n ribald W7
  vermin n vermin W7
  worien vb to worry W7
  wrappen vb to wrap W7
  wrigglen vb to wriggle W7
  wrinkle n wrinkle W7
  wrinkled adj twisted, winding W7
  wrist n wrist W7
English: brusque adj markedly short/abrupt, sharp/harsh AHD/W7
  dextrorse adj winding left-to-right (spirally upward) around axis AHD/W7
  extrorse adj facing outward/away from axis of growth AHD/W7
  gaiter n cloth/leather leg covering from instep to ankle/mid-calf/knee AHD/W7
  introrse adj facing inward/toward axis of growth AHD/W7
  peevish adj fretful, querulous in mood/temperament AHD/W7
  prose n ordinary language in speaking/writing AHD/W7
  retrorse adj bent backward/downward AHD/W7
  rhabdomancy n divination by rods/wands AHD/W7
  rhabdovirus n RNA-containing plant/animal virus AHD
  rhaphide n needle-shaped crystal in plant tissue AHD
  rhombus n equilateral parallelogram AHD/W7
  ribald n crude/wanton/offensive person AHD/W7
  sinistrorse adj winding right-to-left (spirally upward) around axis AHD/W7
  stalwart adj stout, sturdy AHD/W7
  tenorrhaphy n surgical suturing of divided tendons AHD
  verst n (ancient) Russian unit of distance (0.6629 miles) AHD/W7
  worry vb to choke, strangle AHD/W7
  wrap vb to cover by winding/folding AHD/W7
  wriggle vb to squirm, move to-and-fro with writhing motion AHD/W7
  wrinkle n crease, small ridge/furrow AHD/W7
  wrist n (region of) joint between hand/arm AHD/W7
Middle Low German: wriggeln vb to wriggle W7
Old High German: rīban vb to be ribald/wanton, lit. to twist W7
Middle High German: rigel n kerchief wound round head W7
German: Werst n.fem verst W7
Old Norse: urðr n fate W7
Latin: annus n.masc year W7
  dextrorsus adv toward the right W7
  introrsus adj/adv inward W7
  prorsus adv forward W7
  prosa n.fem prose W7
  prosus adj straightforward, being in prose W7
  retrorsum adv backwards W7
  rhombus n.masc circle, round object W7
  sinister adj on left side, unlucky, inauspicious W7
  sinistrorsus adj toward the left side W7
  verto, vertere vb to turn (round) LRC
Late Latin: extrorsus adv outward W7
Medieval Latin: bruscus n.masc butcher's broom W7
New Latin: dextrorsus adj turning on axis from left to right W7
  extrorsus adj outward, turned away from the axis of growth W7
  sinistrorsus adj toward the left side W7
Old French: ribauld/ribaut n.masc ribald, rascal W7
Middle French: prose n.fem prose W7
French: brusque adj snappy, violent W7
  guêtre n.masc spat, gaiter W7
  verste n.fem verst W7
Italian: brusco adj sour, sharp, brusque W7/CID
Old Church Slavonic: vrŭteti vb to turn, roll LRC
Russian: vreteno n spindle, distaff LRC
Homeric Greek: ῥαπτός adj sewed, patched LRC
  ῥάπτω vb to sew, stitch, suture LRC
Greek: rhaphē n suture AHD
  rhembein vb to whirl W7
  rhoikos adj crooked W7
  rhombos n.masc round object W7
Late Greek: rhabdomanteia n.fem rhabdomancy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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