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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3e. u̯er-, u̯er-g̑h-   'to turn, press, wring, strangle'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Press; to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wearg/wearh n.masc wary; monster, evil spirit IEW/ASD
  we(a)rg adj vile, evil, accursed, malignant ASD
  wrang adj wrong W7
  wringan, wrang, wrungon, wrungen vb.str to wring W7
  wyrgan vb to strangle W7
Middle English: wari/weri n wary OED
  wranglen vb to wrangle W7
  wringen vb to wring W7
  wrong adj wrong W7
English: warg n wolf-like monster in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wary n.obs felon, outlaw, villain, criminal OED
  wrangle vb to bicker, dispute angrily/peevishly AHD/W7
  wring, wrung vb.str to twist/squeeze (esp. to extract liquid/moisture) AHD/W7
  wrong adj sinful, immoral, not meeting moral standard AHD/W7
  wrong n injury, unfair/unjust act AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wergia vb to wring, worry, strangle, throttle ASD
Old Saxon: war(a)g adj/n vile, evil, accursed; wary IEW
Old High German: ringan vb to wring, struggle W7
  war(a)g/warc(h) n.masc wary IEW/OED
  wurgen vb to wring, worry, strangle W7
Middle High German: warc n wary; monster OED
German: ringen vb to wring, wrestle, struggle LRC
  würgen vb to choke, retch, suffocate LRC
Old Norse: rangr adj wrong, awry W7
  vargr n.masc wolf, wary IEW
Icelandic: vargr n.masc wolf, wary ASD
  vargur n fox OED
Swedish: varg n.masc wolf, wary LRC
Gothic: launa-wargs n.masc unthankful person ASD
Lithuanian: ver̃sti vb to turn LRC
  veržti vb to constrict W7
Latvian: vērst vb to turn LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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