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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯erdh-, u̯redh-   'to grow; high'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; High


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: anorthite n reddish/whitish feldspar (in igneous rocks) AHD/W7
  orth(o)- pfx straight, upright, vertical W7
  orthodox adj conforming to official doctrine AHD/W7
  orthogonal adj mutually perpendicular AHD/W7
  orthopedics n correction/prevention of skeletal deformities AHD/W7
  orthotics n science re: devices to support/supplement limbs/joints AHD
Latin: orthogonius adj orthogonal, with straigth angles W7
Late Latin: orthodoxus adj orthodox, following strict beliefs W7
New Latin: orthōsis n brace, artificial support AHD
Middle French: orthodoxe adj orthodox W7
  orthogonal adj orthogonal, with straight angles W7
French: anorthite n.fem anorthite W7
Old Church Slavonic: roditi, roždǫ, rodiši vb to bear, produce LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀρθός adj right, straight, erect, upright LS
  ὀρθόω vb to rise/raise up straight LRC
Greek: orthogōnios adj orthogonal, with straight angles W7
  ὀρθότης n.fem erectness, upright posture LS
  ὀρθόω vb to make straight LS
Late Greek: orthodoxos adj orthodox, with a right opinion W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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