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Early Indo-European Texts


Scott L. Harvey and Jonathan Slocum

This page contains a text in Avestan with a modern English translation. This particular text and its translation are extracted from a lesson in the Early Indo-European Online series, where one may find detailed information about this text (see the Table of Contents page for Old Iranian Online in EIEOL), and general information about the Avestan language and its speakers' culture.

Young Avestan: Yast 10 -- excerpt from Hymn to Mithra

1 mraot ahurô mazdĺ Spitamâi Zarathushtrâi
âat yat Mithrem yim vouru-gaoyaoitîm
frâdadhăm azem Spitama âat dim dadhăm
avĺntem yesnyata avĺntem vahmyata
yatha mămcit yim ahurem mazdăm
2 merencaite vîspăm dainghaom
mairyô mithrô-druxsh Spitama
yatha satem kayadhanăm
avavat ashava-jacit
mithrem mâ janyĺ Spitama
mâ yim drvatat peresĺnghe
mâ yim xvâdaęnât ashaonat
vayĺ zî asti mithrô
drvataęca ashaonaęca
3 âsu-aspîm dadhâiti
Mithrô yô vouru-gaoyaoitish
yôi mithrem nôit aiBi-druzhinti
razishtem pantăm dadhâiti
âtarsh mazdĺ ahurahe
yôi mithrem nôit aiBi-druzhinti
ashaonăm vanguhîsh sűrĺ
spentĺ fravashayô dadhâiti
âsnăm frazaintîm
yôi mithrem nôit aiBi-druzhinti
4 ahe raya xvarenanghaca
tem yazâi surunvata yasna
Mithrem vouru-gaoyaoitîm zaothrâbyô
6 tem amavantem yazatem
sűrem dâmôhu sevishtem
Mithrem yazâi zaothrâbyô
tem pairi-jasâi vantaca nemanghaca
tem yazâi surunvata yasna
Mithrem vouru-gaoyaoitîm zaothrâbyô
Mithrem vouru-gaoyaoitîm yazamaide
haomayô gava baresmana
hizvô danghangha măthraca
vacaca shyaothnaca zaothrâbyasca
arshuxdhaęibyasca vâghzhibyô
7 Mithrem vouru-gaoyaoitîm yazamaide
arsh-vacanghem vyâxanem
hazangra-gaoshem hutâshtem
baęvare-cashmanem berezantem
perethu-vaędhayanem sűrem
axvafnem jaghaurvĺnghem
11 yim yazente rathaęshtârô
bareshaęshu paiti aspanăm
zâvare jaidhyantô hitaęibyô
drvatâtem tanubyô
pouru-spaxshtîm tbishyantăm
paiti-jaitîm dushmainyunăm
hathrâ-nivâitîm hamerethanăm
aurvathanăm tbishyantăm


1 Ahura Mazda said unto Zarathustra Spitama: And when I created Mithra, who has vast fields, I created him [to be] as worthy of sacrifice, as worthy of praise, as I, Ahura Mazda [am] my very self. 2 A [single] rogue, unfaithful to a contract, brings ruin upon the entire country, O Spitama -- as much [ruin] as some one hundred evil-doers, slayers of Truthful men. Do not break a covenant, O Spitama, which you would negotiate with a follower of the Lie, nor with a follower of the Truth who has found the good religion, for a convenant is valid for both the follower of the Lie and the follower of the Truth alike. 3 Mithra, who has vast fields, gives swift horses to [those] who do not break a covenant. Fire, [the servant?] of Ahura Mazda, gives the straightest path to [those] who do not break a covenant. The good, strong, [and] beneficent Fravashis of the followers of Truth give virtuous progeny to [those] who do not break a covenant. 4 Indeed, because of his radiance and glory, I shall offer to this Mithra, who has vast fields, a song of praise worthy of being heard, together with libations ... 6 I shall worship with libations this Mithra [who is] strong, worthy of sacrifice, mighty, [and] the most powerful of all creatures. I shall approach him with honor and reverence. I shall offer to this Mithra, who has vast fields, a song of praise worthy of being heard, together with libations. We sacrifice to Mithra, who has vast fields, with a meat offering [placed] between two haoma stalks, with sacrificial grass, with thought and word and deed, and with libations and rightly-spoken words ... 7 We worship Mithra, who has vast fields, whose speech is true, [who is] eloquent, with a thousand ears, [who is] well fashioned, with ten thousand eyes, [who is] great, well-procured, sleepless, [and] continuously awake ... 11 whom warriors worship on the backs of [their] horses, asking [for] vigor for [their] teams, vitality for [their] bodies, far-sightedness with respect to those whom they hate, the overcoming of the malevolent, [and] the striking down with a single blow of [their] enemies, adversaries, and those whom they hate.