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Early Indo-European Texts

Avestan

Scott L. Harvey and Jonathan Slocum

This page contains a text in Avestan with a modern English translation. This particular text and its translation are extracted from a lesson in the Early Indo-European Online series, where one may find detailed information about this text (see the Table of Contents page for Old Iranian Online in EIEOL), and general information about the Avestan language and its speakers' culture.

Young Avestan: Yast 10 -- excerpt from Hymn to Mithra

1 mraoṯ ahurō mazdå Spitamāi Zaraθuštrāi
āaṯ yaṯ Miθrəm yim vouru-gaoyaoitīm
frādaδąm azəm Spitama āaṯ dim daδąm
avåntəm yesnyata avåntəm vahmyata
yaθa mąmciṯ yim ahurəm mazdąm
2 mərəncaite vīspąm daiŋ́haom
mairyō miθrō-druxš Spitama
yaθa satəm kayaδanąm
avavaṯ ašava-jaciṯ
miθrəm mā janyå Spitama
mā yim drvataṯ pərəsåŋhe
mā yim xvādaēnāṯ ašaonaṯ
vayå zī asti miθrō
drvataēca ašaonaēca
3 āsu-aspīm daδāiti
Miθrō yō vouru-gaoyaoitiš
yōi miθrəm nōiṯ aiβi-družinti
razištəm pantąm daδāiti
ātarš mazdå ahurahe
yōi miθrəm nōiṯ aiβi-družinti
ašaonąm vaŋuhīš sūrå
spəntå fravašayō daδāiti
āsnąm frazaintīm
yōi miθrəm nōiṯ aiβi-družinti
4 ahe raya xvarənaŋhaca
təm yazāi surunvata yasna
Miθrəm vouru-gaoyaoitīm zaoθrābyō ...
6 təm amavantəm yazatəm
sūrəm dāmōhu səvištəm
Miθrəm yazāi zaoθrābyō
təm pairi-jasāi vantaca nəmaŋhaca
təm yazāi surunvata yasna
Miθrəm vouru-gaoyaoitīm zaoθrābyō
Miθrəm vouru-gaoyaoitīm yazamaide
haomayō gava barəsmana
hizvō daŋhaŋha mąθraca
vacaca šyaoθnaca zaoθrābyasca
aršuxδaēibyasca vāγžibyō ...
7 Miθrəm vouru-gaoyaoitīm yazamaide
arš-vacaŋhəm vyāxanəm
hazaŋra-gaošəm hutāštəm
baēvarə-cašmanəm bərəzantəm
pərəθu-vaēδayanəm sūrəm
axvafnəm jaγaurvåŋhəm ...
11 yim yazənte raθaēštārō
barəšaēšu paiti aspanąm
zāvarə jaiδyantō hitaēibyō
drvatātəm tanubyō
pouru-spaxštīm ṯbišyantąm
paiti-jaitīm dušmainyunąm
haθrā-nivāitīm hamərəθanąm
aurvaθanąm ṯbišyantąm ...

Translation

1 Ahura Mazda said unto Zarathustra Spitama: And when I created Mithra, who has vast fields, I created him [to be] as worthy of sacrifice, as worthy of praise, as I, Ahura Mazda [am] my very self. 2 A [single] rogue, unfaithful to a contract, brings ruin upon the entire country, O Spitama -- as much [ruin] as some one hundred evil-doers, slayers of Truthful men. Do not break a covenant, O Spitama, which you would negotiate with a follower of the Lie, nor with a follower of the Truth who has found the good religion, for a convenant is valid for both the follower of the Lie and the follower of the Truth alike. 3 Mithra, who has vast fields, gives swift horses to [those] who do not break a covenant. Fire, [the servant?] of Ahura Mazda, gives the straightest path to [those] who do not break a covenant. The good, strong, [and] beneficent Fravashis of the followers of Truth give virtuous progeny to [those] who do not break a covenant. 4 Indeed, because of his radiance and glory, I shall offer to this Mithra, who has vast fields, a song of praise worthy of being heard, together with libations ... 6 I shall worship with libations this Mithra [who is] strong, worthy of sacrifice, mighty, [and] the most powerful of all creatures. I shall approach him with honor and reverence. I shall offer to this Mithra, who has vast fields, a song of praise worthy of being heard, together with libations. We sacrifice to Mithra, who has vast fields, with a meat offering [placed] between two haoma stalks, with sacrificial grass, with thought and word and deed, and with libations and rightly-spoken words ... 7 We worship Mithra, who has vast fields, whose speech is true, [who is] eloquent, with a thousand ears, [who is] well fashioned, with ten thousand eyes, [who is] great, well-procured, sleepless, [and] continuously awake ... 11 whom warriors worship on the backs of [their] horses, asking [for] vigor for [their] teams, vitality for [their] bodies, far-sightedness with respect to those whom they hate, the overcoming of the malevolent, [and] the striking down with a single blow of [their] enemies, adversaries, and those whom they hate.