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Early Indo-European Texts

Classical Greek

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

This page contains a text in Classical Greek with a modern English translation. This particular text and its translation are extracted from a lesson in the Early Indo-European Online series, where one may find detailed information about this text (see the Table of Contents page for Classical Greek Online in EIEOL), and general information about the Classical Greek language and its speakers' culture.

from Homer's Odyssey

Andra moi ennepe, Mousa, polutropon, hos mala polla
plagchthê, epei Troiês hieron ptoliethron epersen;
pollôn d' anthrôpôn iden astea kai noon egnô,
polla d' ho g' en pontô pathen algea hon kata thumon,
arnumenos hên te psuchên kai noston hetairôn.
all' oud' hôs hetarous errusato, hiemenos per;
autôn gar spheterêsin atasthaliêsin olonto,
nêpioi, hoi kata bous Huperionos Êelioio
êsthion; autar ho toisin apheileto nostimon hêmar.
tôn hamothen ge, thea, thugater Dios, eipe kai hêmin.
Enth' alloi men pantes, hosoi phugon aipun olethron,
oikoi esan, polemon te pepheugotes êde thalassan;
ton d' oion nostou kechrêmenon êde gunaikos,
numphê potni' eruke Kalupsô dia theaôn
en spessi glaphuroisi, lilaiomenê posin einai.
all' hote dê etos êlthe periplomenôn eniautôn,
tô hoi epeklôsanto theoi oikonde neesthai
eis Ithakên, oud' entha pephugmenos êen aethlôn
kai meta hoisi philoisi. theoi d' eleairon hapantes
nosphi Poseidaônos; ho d' asperches meneainen
antitheô Odusêi paros hên gaian hikesthai.


Tell me, O Muse, of the much-traveled man, who wandered many ways after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy. He saw the cities of many men and learned their mind. Then he suffered woes in his heart on the sea, seeking to save his life and the return of his comrades. But not even so did he save his comrades, although desiring it greatly. They perished through their own folly, fools, who devoured the cattle of Hyperion Helios. But he took away from them the day of return. Of these things tell also to us, o goddess, daughter of Zeus, beginning at any stage.
Then all the others indeed, whoever had escaped sheer destruction, were at home having escaped the war and also the sea. But him alone, longing for his return and also his wife, the queenly nymph, Calypso, splendid among the goddesses, held back in her hollow grotto, desiring him to be her husband. But when the year came as the years revolved, in which the gods had decided he should return home to Ithaca, not even then did he escape woes, even with his friends. And all the gods pitied him except Poseidon. But he raged unceasingly against godlike Odysseus until he reached his homeland.