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Early Indo-European Texts

Classical Greek

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

This page contains a text in Classical Greek with a modern English translation. This particular text and its translation are extracted from a lesson in the Early Indo-European Online series, where one may find detailed information about this text (see the Table of Contents page for Classical Greek Online in EIEOL), and general information about the Classical Greek language and its speakers' culture.

from Xenophon's Anabasis

ἀφικνοῦνται ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῇ πέμπτῇ ἡμέρᾳ. ὄνομα δὲ τῷ ὄρει ἦν Θήχης. ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρῶτοι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους, κραυγὴ πολλὴ ἐγένετο. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ᾠήθησαν ἔμπροσθεν ἄλλους ἐπιτίθεσθαι πολεμίους. εἵποντο γὰρ ὄπισθεν ἐκ τῆς καιομένης χώρας, καὶ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ἀπέκτεινάν τέ τινας καὶ ἐζώγρησαν ἐνέδραν ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γέρρα ἔλαβον δασειῶν βοῶν ὠμοβόεια ἀμφὶ τὰ εἴκοσιν. ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον καὶ οἱ ἀεὶ ἐπιόντες ἔθεον δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀεὶ βοῶντας καὶ πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοὴ ὅσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντο,-- ἐδόκει δὴ μεῖζόν τι εἶναι τῷ Ξενοφῶντι, καὶ ἀναβὰς ἐφ' ἵππον καὶ Λύκιον καὶ τούς ἱππέας ἀναλαβὼν παρεβοήθει. καὶ τάχα δὴ ἀκούουσι βοώντων τῶν στρατιωτῶν Θάλαττα θάλαττα καὶ παρεγγυώντων. ἔνθα δὴ ἔθεον πάντες καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες, καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἠλαύνετο καὶ οἱ ἵπποι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο πάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον, ἐνταῦθα δὴ περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγοὺς δακρύοντες. καὶ ἐξαπίνης ὅτου δὴ παρεγγυήσαντος οἱ στρατιώται φέρουσι λίθους καὶ ποιοῦσι κολωνὸν μέγαν.

Translation

On the fifth day they reached the mountain; and the name of the mountain was Theches. When the first group arrived on the mountain, a great shout went up. Now when Xenophon and the rear-guard heard it, they thought that other enemies were attacking from the burning area; the rear-guard had killed some of them and captured others alive by setting an ambush, and had also captured about twenty shaggy, raw wicker ox-hide shields. But as the shout became louder and nearer, and those coming up began to run at full speed toward those ahead that were shouting, and as the shout became much greater as they became greater, it seemed to Xenophon that there was something very important. So he mounted his horse, taking also Lycius and the cavalry, and went ahead to help. Soon they heard the soldiers shouting: "The Sea! The Sea!" and passing it along. Then all the rear-guard ran and the pack animals broke into a run and also the horses. And when they came to the peak, then they embraced one another, both the generals and the captains, weeping. And all of a sudden, when someone suggested it, the soldiers bring stones and make a great heap.