Featured Articles Summer 2015
A Blessing Can’t Afford: Factors Underlying the Paradox of Happiness about Unintended Pregnancy
Abigail R.A. Aiken, Chloe Dillaway, and Natasha Mevs-Korff
Social Science and Medicine 132:149-155, 2015
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Abstract: An unresolved paradox in the measurement and interpretation of unintended pregnancy is that women frequently report feeling happy about pregnancies they also classify as unintended (i.e. they have incongruent intentions and feelings). This study explores the underlying reasons why women profess such happiness and how these relate to their motivations to avoid pregnancy. Between September 2013 and February 2014, semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 women (8 white, 19 Latina) selected from a longitudinal study measuring prospective pregnancy intentions and feelings among 403 women in Austin, Texas.Women were selected for interview on the basis of wanting no more children and consistently professing either happiness (n ¼ 17) or unhappiness (n ¼ 10) at the prospect of pregnancy. Interviews were coded and analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. We found that it is possible for women to express happiness at the idea of pregnancy while simultaneously earnestly trying to prevent conception. Happiness at the idea of an unintended pregnancy was explained as the result of deep and heartfelt feelings about children taking precedence over practical considerations, the perception that the psychosocial stress resulting from another child would be low, and the ability to rationalize an unintended pregnancy as the result of fate or God's plan. The major exception to the sincerity of professed happiness was that conveyed as a result of social pressure despite truly negative feelings, predominantly expressed by foreign-born Latina women. Overall, equating incongruence with ambivalence about avoiding conception may undermine the sincerity of women's intentions and their desires for highly-effective contraception. At the same time, unintended pregnancies that are greeted with happiness may have different implications for maternal and child health outcomes compared to pregnancies that are greeted with unhappiness. Identifying which unintended pregnancies are most likely to result in adverse outcomes is a target for future research.
Children’s Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years
Arya Ansari and Robert Crosnoe
Early Childhood Research Quarterly 32:139-149, 2015
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Abstract: Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting—in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking—when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential “child effects”, suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents’ educational attainment. Findings from this study have implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting.
Schools, Peers, and Prejudice in Adolescence
Aprile D. Benner, Robert Crosnoe, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles
Journal of Research on Adolescence 25:173-188, 2014
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Abstract: Adolescents' perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents' own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that school-wide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents' academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents' own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization.
Beyond Blackboards: Engaging Underserved Middle School Students in Engineering
Sarah Blanchard, Justina Judy, Chandra Muller, Richard H. Crawford, Anthony J. Petrosino, Christina K. White, Fu-An Lin, and Kristin L. Wood
Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 5:1-14, 2015
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Abstract: Beyond Blackboards is an inquiry-centered, after-school program designed to enhance middle school students’ engagement with engineering through design-based experiences focused on the 21st Century Engineering Challenges. Set within a predominantly lowincome, majority-minority community, our study aims to investigate the impact of Beyond Blackboards on students’ interest in and understanding of engineering, as well as their ability to align their educational and career plans. We compare participants’ and nonparticipants’ questionnaire responses before the implementation and at the end of the program’s first academic year. Statistically significant findings indicate a school-wide increase in students’ interest in engineering careers, supporting a shift in school culture. However, only program participants showed increased enjoyment of design-based strategies, understanding of what engineers do, and awareness of the steps for preparing for an engineering career. These quantitative findings are supported by qualitative evidence from participant focus groups highlighting the importance of mentors in shaping students’ awareness of opportunities within engineering.
A Population-Level Approach to Promoting Healthy Child Development and School Success in Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods: Impact on Parenting and Child Conduct Problems
Spring Dawson-McClure, Esther Calzada, Keng-Yen Huang, Dimitra Kamboukos, Dana Rhule, Bukky Kolawole, Eva Petkova, and Laurie Miller Brotman
Prevention Science 16:279-290, 2015
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Abstract: Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families.
The Associations of Race/Ethnicity and Suicidal Ideation Among College Students: A Latent Class Analysis Examining Precipitating Events and Disclosure Patterns
Susan De Luca, Yueqi Yan, Megan C. Lytle, and Chris Brownson
Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 44:444-456, 2014
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Abstract: The aim of this paper was to examine precipitating events for suicidal ideation and how these experiences relate to disclosure in a diverse sample of college students were examined. Among non-Hispanic White students, relationship/academic problems were most associated with ideation. A romantic break-up increased the odds of getting help. Among racial/ethnic minority students, family/academic problems were most associated with ideation and students who reported multiple events were less likely to get help compared with those not reporting events. Future research should examine the reasons for interpersonal conflict among this high-risk group and their attitudes about help-seeking, and identify cultural norms associated with disclosure.
China’s Only Children and Psychopathology: A Quantitative Synthesis
Toni Fablo and Sophia Y. Hooper
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 85:259-274, 2015
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Abstract: The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China’s 1-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the 1-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: Only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale, while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth.
“I’ll Give You the World”: Socioeconomic Differences in Parental Support of Adult Children
Karen L. Fingerman, Kyungmin Kim, Eden M. Davis, Frank F. Furstenberg Jr., Kira S. Birditt and Steven H. Zarit
Journal of Marriage and Family DOI:10.1111/jomf.12204, 2015
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Abstract: Research has shown that parents with higher socioeconomic status provide more resources to their children during childhood and adolescence The authors asked whether similar effects associated with parental socioeconomic position are extended to adult children. Middle-aged parents (N=633) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support they provided to their grown children and coresidence with grown children (N=1,384). Parents with higher income provided more emotional and material support to the average children. Grown children of parents with less education were more likely to coreside with them. Parental resources (e.g., being married) and demands (e.g., family size) explained these patterns. Of interest is that lower income parents provided more total support to all children (except total financial support). Lower income families may experience a double jeopardy; each grown child receives less support on average, but parents exert greater efforts providing more total support to all their children.
Exploring Variation in the Impact of Dual-Credit Coursework on Postsecondary Outcomes: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Texas Students
Matthew Giani, Celeste Alexander, and Pedro Reyes
The High School Journal 97:200-218, 2014
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Abstract: Despite the growing popularity of dual-credit courses as a college readiness strategy, numerous reviews of the literature have noted a number of important limitations of the research on the effects of dual-credit on student postsecondary outcomes. This study addressed these gaps in the literature by estimating the impact of dual-credit courses on postsecondary access, first-to-second year persistence, and eventual college attainment, and overcame many of the methodological limitations of previous studies. The study utilized a statewide longitudinal data system (SLDS), allowing us to track an entire cohort of students through their transition into postsecondary statewide. Propensity score matching was used in order to reduce the self-selection bias associated with high achieving students being more likely to take dual-credit courses. We explored how the number of dual-credit courses students complete and the subject of the courses influences their impact. We also compared the effects of dual-credit to alternative advanced courses. Our results suggest that dual-credit is a promising strategy for increasing the likelihood of students accessing, persisting through, and completing a degree in postsecondary, and is possibly even more impactful than advanced coursework. However, significant variation in the benefit of dual-credit exists.
Leaving the Faith: How Religious Switching Changes Pathways to Adulthood among Conservative Protestant Youth
Jennifer L. Glass, April Sutton, and Scott T. Fitzgerald
Social Currents DOI: 10.1177/2329496515579764, 2015
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Abstract: Research revealing associations between Conservative Protestantism and lower socioeconomic status is bedeviled by questions of causal inference. Religious switching offers another way to understand the causal ordering of religious participation and demographic markers of class position. In this article, we look at adolescents who change their religious affiliation across four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and then observe their transition to adulthood using four crucial markers—completed educational attainment, age at first marriage, age at first birth, and income at the final wave. Results show that switching out of a Conservative Protestant denomination in adolescence can alter some, but not all, of the negative consequences associated with growing up in a Conservative Protestant household. Specifically, family formation is delayed among switchers, but early cessation of education is not.
Deporting Social Capital: The Removal of Salvadoran Migrants from the United States
Jacqueline Hagan, David Leal, and Nestor Rodriguez
Migration Studies DOI: 10.1093/migration/mnu054, 2015
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Abstract: The United States currently removes approximately 400,000 individual migrants each year, which represents close to an eightfold increase since the mid-1990s. While scholars have studied the consequences of such policies for children and families, this article posits broader effects on communities through the reduction of immigrant social and human capital. Using findings from three studies of immigrant communities and Salvadoran deportees, we show that current deportation practices remove individuals with a wide range of socio-economic resources and ties to local communities. When they are removed from economic, family, social, and civic networks, the individuals and communities left behind are impoverished in important ways. This is particularly consequential for low-resource immigrant communities, which under the best of circumstances encounter obstacles to economic advancement, social integration, and political engagement. In addition, we consider the potential harm to the institutions in which immigrants participate, such as businesses and churches, which has implications for the economy and society more generally.
Stopped in the Name of the Law: Administrative Burden and its Implications for Cash Transfer Program Effectiveness
Carolyn J. Heinrich and Robert Brill
World Development 72:277-295, 2015
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Abstract: Cash transfer programs have achieved wide-ranging success in reducing poverty, yet there is little empirical research on how program rules and administrative capacity might limit program effectiveness. We examine administrative burden and quantify its implications for grant access and impacts in the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) program, as the age of eligibility and application requirements changed over time. We find that approximately 60% of the sampled children experienced an interruption or disconnection in cash transfer receipt, and that both timing and “dosage” loss are associated with adolescent engagement in risky behaviors, and for females, lower educational attainment.
Women’s Experiences Seeking Publicly Funded Family Planning Services in Texas
Kristine Hopkins, Kari White, Fran Linkin, Celia Hubert, Daniel Grossman and Joseph E. Potter
Perspectives and Sexual Reproductive Health DOI: 10.1363/47e2815, 2015
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Abstract: CONTEXT: Little is known about low-income women’s and teenagers’ experiences accessing publicly funded family planning services, particularly after policy changes are made that aff ect the cost of and access to such services. METHODS: Eleven focus groups were conducted with 92 adult women and 15 teenagers in nine Texas metropolitan areas in July–October 2012, a year after legislation that reduced access to subsidized family planning was enacted. Participants were recruited through organizations that serve low-income populations. At least two researchers independently coded the transcripts of the discussions and identifi ed main themes. RESULTS: Although most women were not aware of the legislative changes, they reported that in the past year, they had had to pay more for previously free or low-cost services, use less eff ective contraceptive methods or forgo care. They also indicated that accessing aff ordable family planning services had long been diffi cult, that applying and qualifying for programs was a challenge and that obtaining family planning care was harder than obtaining pregnancyrelated care. As a result of an inadequate reproductive health safety net, women experienced unplanned pregnancies and were unable to access screening services and follow-up care. Teenagers experienced an additional barrier, the need to obtain parental consent. Some women preferred to receive family planning services from specialized providers, while others preferred more comprehensive care. CONCLUSION: Women in Texas have long faced challenges in obtaining subsidized family planning services. Legislation that reduced access to family planning services for low-income women and teenagers appears to have added to those challenges.
Selling Students Short: Racial Differences in Teachers' Evaluations of High, Average, and Low Performing Students
Social Science Research 52:522-538, 2015
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Abstract: Education scholars document notable racial differences in teachers’ perceptions of students’ academic skills. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, this study advances research on teacher perceptions by investigating whether racial differences in teachers’ evaluations of first grade students’ overall literacy skills vary for high, average, and low performing students. Results highlight both the overall accuracy of teachers’ perceptions, and the extent and nature of possible inaccuracies, as demonstrated by remaining racial gaps net literacy test performance. Racial differences in teachers’ perceptions of Black, non-White Latino, and Asian students (compared to White students) exist net teacher and school characteristics and vary considerably across literacy skill levels. Skill specific literacy assessments appear to explain the remaining racial gap for Asian students, but not for Black and non-White Latino students. Implications of these findings for education scholarship, gifted education, and the achievement gap are discussed.
Stability and Change in Adjustment Profiles Among Chinese American Adolescents: The Role of Parenting
Su Yeong Kim, Yijie Wang, Yishan Shen and Yang Hou
Journal of Youth and Adolescence DOI 10.1007/s10964-015-0303-3, 2015
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Abstract: Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with “tiger” parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents’ adjustment in multiple domains over time.
Beyond the Cross-Sectional: Neighborhood Poverty Histories and Preterm Birth
Claire Margerison-Zilko, Catherine Cubbin, Jina Jin, Kristen Marchi, Kathryn Fingar, and Paula Braveman
American Journal of Public Health 105:1174-1180, 2015
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Abstract: Objectives. We examined associations between longitudinal neighborhood poverty trajectories and preterm birth (PTB). Methods. Using data from the Neighborhood Change Database (1970–2000) and the American Community Survey (2005–2009), we categorized longitudinal trajectories of poverty for California neighborhoods (i.e., census tracts). Birth data included 23 291 singleton California births from the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (2003–2009). We estimated associations (adjusted for individual-level covariates) between PTB and longitudinal poverty trajectories and compared these to associations using traditional, cross-sectional measures of poverty. Results. Compared to neighborhoods with long-term low poverty, those with long-term high poverty and those that experienced increasing poverty early in the study period had 41% and 37% increased odds of PTB (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.69 and 1.09, 1.72, respectively). High (compared with low) cross-sectional neighborhood poverty was not associated with PTB (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.91, 1.28). Conclusions. Neighborhood poverty histories may contribute to an understanding of perinatal health and should be considered in future research.
Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process
Devah Pager and David S. Pedulla
American Journal of Sociology 120:1005-1054, 2015
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Abstract: While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process.
Birth and Motherhood: Childbirth Experience and Mothers’ Perceptions of Themselves and Their Babies
Samantha Reisz, Deborah Jacobvitz, and Carol George
Infant Mental Health Journal 36, 167-178, 2015
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Abstract: Childbirth is a major experience in a woman's life, but the relation between childbirth experiences and later mother-infant outcomes has been understudied. This study examined the relation between mode of delivery and subjective birth experience (e.g., perception of control, social support during labor and delivery), and mothers' descriptions of their babies and their maternal self-esteem, both powerful predictors of maternal caregiving behavior. This study had three questions: (a) Do mode of delivery and subjective birth experience predict mothers' descriptions of their babies and maternal self-esteem? (b) Are the effects of mode of delivery on mothers' descriptions and maternal self-esteem mediated by subjective birth experience? (c) Does infant age moderate any of these pathways? The sample consisted of 269 mothers of full-term, healthy infants who gave birth in the year prior to the study. Mode of delivery showed a direct effect on how mothers describe their babies, but not maternal self-esteem, which was not mediated by subjective birth experience. Subjective birth experience had direct effects on both outcomes. Infant age did not moderate any of these pathways. Results point to the subjective aspects of childbirth as important components of women's experience of labor and delivery. Implications are discussed.
Ancient DNA From the Schild Site in Illinois: Implications for the Mississippian Transition in the Lower Illinois River Valley
Austin W. Reynolds, Jennifer A. Raff, Deborah A. Bolnick, Della C. Cook, and Frederika A. Kaestle
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156-434-448, 2015
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Abstract: Archaeologists have long debated whether rapid cultural change in the archaeological record is due to in situ developments, migration of a new group into the region, or the spread of new cultural practices into an area through existing social networks, with the local peoples adopting and adapting practices from elsewhere as they see fit (acculturation). Researchers have suggested each of these explanations for the major cultural transition that occurred at the beginning of the Mississippian period (AD 1050) across eastern North America. In this study, we used ancient DNA to test competing hypotheses of migration and acculturation for the culture change that occurred between the Late Woodland (AD 400–1050) and Mississippian (AD 1050–1500) periods in the Lower Illinois River Valley. We obtained sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) from 39 individuals (17 Late Woodland, 22 Mississippian) interred in the Schild cemetery in western Illinois, andcompared these lineages to ancient mtDNA lineages present at other sites in the region. Computer simulations were used to test a null hypothesis of population continuity from Late Woodland to Mississippian times at the Schild site and to investigate the possibility of gene flow from elsewhere in the region. Our results suggest that the Late Woodland to Mississippian cultural transition at Schild was not due to an influx of people from elsewhere. Instead, it is more likely that the transition to Mississippian cultural practices at this site was due to a process of acculturation.
Marital Quality and Cognitive Limitations in Late Life
Minle Xu, Patricia Thomas, and Debra Umberson
Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 2015
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Abstract: Objectives. Identifying factors associated with cognitive limitations among older adults has become a major public health objective. Given the importance of marital relationships for older adults’ health, this study examines the association between marital quality and change in cognitive limitations in late life, directionality of the relationship between marital quality and cognitive limitations, and potential gender differences in these associations. Method. Latent growth curve models were used to estimate the association of marital quality with change in cognitive limitations among older adults and the direction of the association between marital quality and cognitive limitations using 4 waves of the Americans’ Changing Lives survey (N = 841). Results. Results indicate that more frequent negative (but not positive) marital experiences are associated with a slower increase in cognitive limitations over time, and the direction of this association does not operate in the reverse (i.e., cognitive limitations did not lead to change in marital quality over time). The association between negative marital experiences and cognitive limitations is similar for men and women. Discussion. The discussion highlights possible explanations for the apparent protective effect of negative marital experiences for older adults’ cognitive health over time, regardless of gender.
Abstract: Background The relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and childhood growth remains controversial. An examination on whether infant feeding practices mediate this relationship may improve our understanding of it. Methods We investigated whether the relationships among GWG, birth weight and childhood anthropometrics were mediated through infant feeding practices (breastfeeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods) in a cross-sectional multiethnic study of 1387 mothers and their children aged 0–5.9 years in the USA (2011–2012). Child anthropometrics included agespecific and sex-specific z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height/ length (WHZ) and body mass index-for-age (BMIZ); and ulnar length, a marker for limb growth. We used structural equation modelling to calculate standardised path coefficients and total, direct and indirect associations of GWG, birth weight and infant feeding practices with child anthropometrics. Results Maternal GWG had a positive indirect association with all anthropometrics mediated via birth weight, whereas longer breastfeeding duration reduced the positive associations of GWG and birth weight with WAZ, WHZ and BMIZ in non-Hispanics (β=−0.077, −0.064 and −0.106, respectively). Longer breastfeeding
Longer Breastfeeding Duration Reduces the Positive Relationship among Gestational Weight Gain, Birth Weight and Childhood Anthropometrics
Yeyi Zhu, Ladia M. Hernandez, Yongquan Dong, John H. Himes, Steven Hirschfeld, and Michele R. Forman
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health doi:10.1136/jech-2014-204794, 2015
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duration and introducing solid foods at a later age were positively associated with ulnar length (β=0.023 and 0.030, respectively) but not HAZ, suggesting a distinct association, for the first time, with limb growth. Conclusions Findings suggest that promoting longer breastfeeding duration among women with excessive GWG who had high birthweight newborns may mitigate the potential for their offspring to develop obesity. In addition, findings reinforce the importance of promoting appropriate GWG and preventing high birth weight, which are positively associated with childhood anthropometrics.