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Featured Articles Spring 2015

http://a1.mzstatic.com/us/r30/Newsstand2/v4/32/47/35/32473567-2058-7ed1-d22e-c0211f774bfd/seo_cw_product.pngManagement of Fetal Malposition in the Second Stage of Labor: A Propensity Score Analysis
Abbie R. Aiken, Catherine E. Aiken, Medhat S. Alberry, Jeremy C. Brockelsby, and James G. Scot
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 212(3):355.e1-355.e7, 2015
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Abstract:  Objective.  We sought to determine the factors associated with selection of rotational instrumental vs cesarean delivery to manage persistent fetal malposition, and to assess differences in adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes following delivery by rotational instruments vs cesarean delivery.  Study Design.  We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period in a tertiary United Kingdom obstetrics center. In all, 868 women with vertex-presenting, single, liveborn infants at term with persistent malposition in the second stage of labor were included. Propensity score stratification was used to control for selection bias: the possibility that obstetricians may systematically select more difficult cases for cesarean delivery. Linear and logistic regression models were used to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes for delivery by rotational forceps or ventouse vs cesarean delivery, adjusting for propensity scores.  Results.  Increased likelihood of rotational instrumental delivery was associated with lower maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; P < .01), lower body mass index (OR, 0.94; P < .001), lower birthweight (OR, 0.95; P < .01), no evidence of fetal compromise at the time of delivery (OR, 0.31; P < .001), delivery during the daytime (OR, 1.45; P < .05), and delivery by a more experienced obstetrician (OR, 7.21; P < .001). Following propensity score stratification, there was no difference by delivery method in the rates of delayed neonatal respiration, reported critical incidents, or low fetal arterial pH. Maternal blood loss was higher in the cesarean group (295.8 ± 48 mL, P < .001).  Conclusion.  Rotational instrumental delivery is often regarded as unsafe. However, we find that neonatal outcomes are no worse once selection bias is accounted for, and that the likelihood of severe obstetric hemorrhage is reduced. More widespread training of obstetricians in rotational instrumental delivery should be considered, particularly in light of rising cesarean delivery rates.

Journal of Youth and AdolescenceDemographic Marginalization, Social Integration, and Adolescents' Educational Success
Aprile D. Benner and Yijie Wang
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 43(10):1611-1627, 2014
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Abstract: Links between schools’ demographic composition and students’ achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54 % females; 53 % White, 21 % African American, 15 % Latino, 8 % Asian American, 2 % other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students’ later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having <15 % same-socioeconomic status (SES) peers] had lower cumulative grade point averages across high school and lower educational attainment. A similar disadvantage was observed among students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having <15 % same-SES peers and <15 % same-racial/ethnic peers). Indirect effects were also observed, such that demographic marginalization was linked to poorer school attachment, and poorer school attachment, in turn, was related to poorer academic performance. These results highlight the educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts.

Gatekeepers of the American Dream: How teachers’ perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students
Sarah Blanchard and Chandra Muller
Social Science Research 51:262-275, 2015
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Abstract: High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers’ perceptions of students’ effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers’ perceptions and students’ academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students’ background that moderate the way that high school teachers’ perceptions shape students’ preparation for college.

Current CoverThe Role of Socioeconomic Factors in Black-White Disparities in Preterm Birth
Paula A. Braveman, Katherine Heck, Susan Egerter, Kristen S. Marchi, Tyan Parker Dominguez, Catherine Cubbin, Kathryn Fingar, Jay A. Pearson, and Michael Curtis
American Journal of Public Health 105(4):694-702, 2015
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Abstract:  Objectives. We investigated the role of socioeconomic factors in Black-White disparities in preterm birth (PTB). Methods. We used the population-based California Maternal and Infant Health Assessment survey and birth certificate data on 10 400 US-born Black and White California residents who gave birth during 2003 to 2010 to examine rates and relative likelihoods of PTB among Black versus White women, with adjustment for multiple socioeconomic factors and covariables. Results. Greater socioeconomic advantage was generally associated with lower PTB rates among White but not Black women. There were no significant Black-White disparities within the most socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroups; Black-White disparities were seen only within more advantaged subgroups. Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors play an important but complex role in PTB disparities. The absence of Black-White disparities in PTB within certain socioeconomic subgroups, alongside substantial disparities within others, suggests that social factors moderate the disparity. Further research should explore social factors suggested by the literature-including life course socioeconomic experiences and racism-related stress, and the biological pathways through which they operate-as potential contributors to PTB among Black and White women with different levels of social advantage.

Do Networked Workers Have More Control? The Implications of Teamwork, Telework, ITC's, and Social Capital for Job Decision Latitude
Wenhong Chen and Steve McDonald
American Behavioral Scientist 59:492-507, 2014
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Abstract:  The shift toward "networked work" in the United States—spurred on by globalization, technological changes, and the reorganization of work activities—has important consequences for job quality that require further investigation. Using nationally representative data from the 2008 Networked Worker Survey, we examine how teamwork, telework, and information and communication technology use are associated with, and positively and significantly predict, job decision latitude (autonomy and skill development). The results imply that networked work helps enhance job decision latitude partly through greater network connectivity (social capital). Furthermore, the contribution of information and communication technology use to job decision latitude is contingent on its perceived benefits and on the organization of work into teams. These findings therefore help deepen our understanding of how the changing character of work affects worker control in contemporary workplaces.

Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention
Michele R. Forman, Deborah M. Winn, Gwen W. Collman, Jeanne Rizzo, and Linda S. Birnbaum
Reproductive Toxicology, DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.10.019, 2014
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Abstract: This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk.

Can We Finish the Revolution? Gender, Work-Family Ideals, and Institutional Constraint
David S. Pedulla and Sarah Thebaud
American Sociological Review 80(1):116-139, 2015
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Abstract: Why has progress toward gender equality in the workplace and at home stalled in recent decades? A growing body of scholarship suggests that persistently gendered workplace norms and policies limit men’s and women’s ability to create gender egalitarian relationships at home. In this article, we build on and extend prior research by examining the extent to which institutional constraints, including workplace policies, affect young, unmarried men’s and women’s preferences for their future work-family arrangements. We also examine how these effects vary across education levels. Drawing on original survey-experimental data, we ask respondents how they would like to structure their future relationships while experimentally manipulating the degree of institutional constraint under which they state their preferences. Two clear patterns emerge. First, as constraints are removed and men and women can opt for an egalitarian relationship, the majority choose this option, regardless of gender or education level. Second, women’s relationship structure preferences are more responsive than men’s to the removal of institutional constraints through supportive work-family policy interventions. These findings shed light on important questions about the role of institutions in shaping work-family preferences, underscoring the notion that seemingly gender-traditional work-family decisions are largely contingent on the constraints of current workplaces.

Diet and Exercise in Parenthood: A Social Control Perspective
Corinne Reczek, Mieke B. Thomeer, Amy C. Lodge, Debra Umberson, and Megan Underhill 
Journal of Marriage and Family 76(5):1047-1062, 2014
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Abstract:  Previous work on social control—the direct and indirect regulation of an individual's health behaviors by others—suggests that parent–child relationships promote healthy diet and exercise. Yet parenthood is associated with less healthy diet and exercise patterns. The authors investigated this paradox by examining social control processes in 40 in-depth interviews with mothers and fathers. They found that parenthood involves social control processes that both promote and compromise healthy behavior, contributing to contradictory perceived effects of parenthood on health behavior. Moreover, the dynamics of social control appear to unfold in different ways for mothers and fathers and depend on the child's gender and life stage, suggesting that gender and age dyads are central to understanding the seemingly contradictory consequences of parenthood at the population level. These articulations of gendered social control processes provide new insight into the consequences of the gendered organization of parenthood for diet and exercise.

Publication CoverAcculturation, Gender, and Health Among Middle Eastern Immigrants in the United States: Evidence 
Neveen Shafeek Amin
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 44(3):60-83, 2014
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Abstract: This  study  uses data  from the 2002–12  National  Health  Interview Surveys and binary  logistic  regressiontechniques to examine the association between acculturation and health for Middle Eastern (ME) immigrants inthe United States. Particular attention is given to the gender-specific acculturation–health relationship. Resultsindicate  that,  in  general,  ME immigrants are  healthier  than U.S.-born  whites;  ME immigrant  men are,  onaverage,  healthier  than  ME  immigrant  women.  The  study  finds  evidence  of  an  association  betweenacculturation and self-rated health. However, the acculturation pattern holds neither for activity limitation nor forchronic health conditions. Male and female ME immigrants of all acculturation levels are less likely to reportany activity limitations or any chronic health conditions compared to their U.S.-born counterparts. Findingssuggest  that  future research on ME immigrants and on other immigrant  groups should take into  accountdifferent levels of acculturation when examining the relationship between acculturation and self-rated health by gender.

Cover image ContraceptionFinding the Twitter Users Who Stood with Wendy
Amanda Jean Stevenson
Contraception 90(5):502-507, 2014
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Abstract:  Objective. I examine Twitter discussion regarding the Texas omnibus abortion restriction bill before, during and after Wendy Davis’ filibuster in summer 2013. This critical moment precipitated wide public discussion of abortion. Digital records allow me to characterize the spatial distribution of participants in Texas and the United States and estimate the proportion of participants who were Texans.  Study design. Building a dataset based on all hashtags associated with the bill between June 19th and July 14th, 2013, I use GPS locations and text descriptions of locations to classify users by county of residence. Mapping tweets from accounts within the continental United States by day, I describe the residential composition of the conversation in total and over time. Using indirect estimation, I compute an estimate of the number of Texans who participated.  Results.  About 1.66 million tweets were sent using hashtags associated with the bill from 399,081 user accounts. I estimate counties of residence for 160,954 participants (40.3%). An estimated 115,500 participants (29%) were Texans, and Texans sent an estimated 48.8% of all tweets. Tweets were sent from users estimated to live in every region of Texas, including 189 of Texas’ 254 counties. Texans tweeted more than non-Texans on every day except the filibuster and the day after.  Conclusion.  The analysis measures real-life responses to proposed abortion restrictions from people across Texas and the United States. It demonstrates that Twitter users from across Texas counties opposed HB2 by describing the geographical range of US and Texan abortion rights supporters on Twitter.  Implications.  The Twitter discussion surrounding Wendy Davis’ filibuster revealed a geographically diverse population of individuals who strongly oppose abortion restrictions. Texans from across the state were among those who actively voiced opposition. Identifying rights supporters through online behavior may present a new way of classifying individuals’ orientations regarding abortion rights.

Marital Processes around Depression: A Gendered Perspective
Mieke Thomeer, Tetyana Pudrovska, and Debra Umberson
Society and Mental Health, 3(3):151-169, 2013
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Abstract: Despite extensive evidence of the importance of marriage for mental health, little is known about the processes through which depressive symptoms in one spouse influence the other spouse's depressive symptoms and whether men or women are more likely to influence their spouse. We use a mixed methods approach to explore how gender shapes the influence of one spouse’s depressive symptoms on the other spouse as this process unfolds over time. Our quantitative longitudinal analysis of 2,601 couples from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) demonstrates that a wife’s depressive symptoms affect her husband’s future depressive symptoms but a husband’s depressive symptoms do not influence his wife’s future symptoms. Our qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 29 couples elucidates these findings, indicating that acts of emotion work, primarily by women, alter the marital environment differently depending on whether the husband or wife is depressed, contributing to gendered patterns of inter-spousal depressive symptom transmissions. Our study points to the importance of cultural scripts of masculinity and femininity in shaping depression processes within marriage and highlights the importance of applying a gendered couple-level approach to better understand the mental health effects of marriage.

Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships
Debra Umberson, Mieke B. Thomeer, Rhiannon Kroeger, Amy Lodge, and Minle Xu
Journal of Marriage and Family 77(1):96-111, 2015
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Abstract: Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships.

Declines in efficacy of anti-bullying programs among older adolescents: Theoretical considerations and a three-level meta-analysis

David S. Yeager, Carlton J. Fong, Hae Yeon Lee, and Dorthy L. Espelage
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 37:36-51, 2015
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Abstract: Highly visible tragedies in high schools thought to involve bullying have directly contributed to public support for state-mandated K-12 anti-bullying programming. But are existing programs actually effective for these older adolescents? This paper first outlines theoretical considerations, including developmental changes in (a) the manifestation of bullying, (b) the underlying causes of bullying, and (c) the efficacy of domain-general behavior-change tactics. This review leads to the prediction of a discontinuity in program efficacy among older adolescents. The paper then reports a novel meta-analysis of studies that administered the same program to multiple age groups and measured levels of bullying (k = 19, with 72 effect sizes). By conducting a hierarchical meta-analysis of the within-study moderation of efficacy by age, more precise estimates of age-related trends were possible. Results were consistent with theory in that whereas bullying appears to be effectively prevented in 7th grade and below, in 8th grade and beyond there is a sharp drop to an average of zero. This finding contradicts past meta-analyses that used between-study tests of moderation. This paper provides a basis for a theory of age-related moderation of program effects that may generalize to other domains. The findings also suggest the more general need for caution when interpreting between-study meta-analytic moderation results.

Population Research and Policy ReviewEducational Attainment and Timing to First Union Across Three Generations of Mexican Women

Rhiannon A. Kroeger, Reanne Frank, and Kammi K. Schmeet
Population Research and Policy Review, DOI: 10.1007/s11113-014-9351-8, 2014
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Abstract: We use data from Wave 3 of the Mexican Family Life Survey (N = 7,276) and discrete-time regression analyses to evaluate changes in the association between educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of women in Mexico, including a mature cohort (born between 1930 and 1949), a middle cohort (born between 1950 and 1969), and a young cohort (born between 1970 and 1979). Mirroring prior research, we find a curvilinear pattern between educational attainment and timing to first union for women born between 1930 and 1969, such that once we account for the delaying effect of school enrollment, those with the lowest (0–5 years) and highest levels of education (13+ years) are characterized by the earliest transition to a first union. For women born between 1970 and 1979, however, we find that the relationship between educational attainment and timing to first union has changed. In contrast to their peers born in earlier cohorts, highly educated women in Mexico are now postponing first union formation relative to the least educated. We draw on competing theories of educational attainment and timing to first union to help clarify these patterns in the context of Mexico.

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