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Robert Abzug, Director CLA 2.402, 305 E 23rd St B3600, Austin, TX 78712 • 512-475-6178

Miriam Bodian

Professor Ph.D., 1988, Hebrew University

Miriam Bodian

Contact

  • Phone: 512-471-4358
  • Office: GAR 2.104A
  • Office Hours: On leave 2011-2012.
  • Campus Mail Code: B7000

Biography

Research interests

Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions; post-Expulsion Sephardic Jewry; Jews and the Reformation

Courses taught

Jewish Martyrdom; The Church and the Jews; The Spanish Inquisition; Early Modern Jewish History; Medieval Jewish History; Modern Jewish History

Awards/Honors

National Jewish Book Award in history, 1998
First annual Koret Jewish Book Award in history, 1998

Interests

Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions; post-Expulsion Sephardic Jewry; Jews and the Reformation

J S 364 • The Church And The Jews

40375 • Fall 2014
Meets TTH 1230pm-200pm SAC 5.102
(also listed as EUS 346, HIS 362G, R S 357 )
show description

This course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews over the course of two millenia. We will analyze ideas about Jews as they were expressed in both elite and popular culture, from theological works and canon law to church art and popular preaching. We will especially try to understand how changing conditions of life in the Christian West gave rise to striking changes in attitudes and policies toward Jews - changes whose justification required a rethinking of Christian theology.

Required to purchase:Revised Standard Version of the Bible (any edition)We will make use of a website designed specifically for this course by the instructor. The website will be distributed in CD-Rom form. It includes many of the readings. Other assigned readings will be posted on Blackboard.

Grading:Class attendance and participation (10%), two unannounced quizes (20%), two 1-3 pp. assignments (20%), mid-term exam (20%), final exam (30%). Plus and minus grades will be used.

J S 304N • Jewish Civ: 1492 To Present

40655 • Spring 2014
Meets TTH 930am-1100am GAR 1.126
(also listed as EUS 306, HIS 306N, R S 313N )
show description

This course deals with Jewish civilization in the period from 1492 (the year of the expulsion of the Jews of Spain) to the present. It will give students a grasp of major trends and episodes in Jewish history in this period, including the rise of eastern European Jewry, Hassidism, emancipation, modern antisemitism, nineteenth-century Jewish nationalism, the development of American Jewry, the Holocaust, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the Arab-Israeli conflict.

 

Required texts:

 

Eli Barnavi, A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People: From the Time of the Patriarchs to the Present.

 

Paul Mendes-Flohr and Jehuda Reinharz, eds., The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History.

 

 

Assignments and grading:

 

Participation (10%), two quizzes (10%), mid-term (30%), final exam (50%).

 

J S 304N • Jewish Civilization: 1492-Pres

40200 • Spring 2013
Meets MWF 100pm-200pm WEL 2.304
(also listed as EUS 306, HIS 306N, R S 313N )
show description

This is the second half of a two-semester survey of Jewish civilization, from the Second Temple period (c. 500 BCE) to the present. In broad strokes, the sequence will give students a conception of a culture and history that has preserved certain continuities, but has also undergone great transformations as Jews have migrated, encountered other cultures, and adapted to changing circumstances. 

This segment of the two-semester sequence, which can be taken independently of the first, deals with Jewish civilization in the period from 1492 (the year of the expulsion of the Jews of Spain) to the present. It will give students a grasp of major Jewish migrations in this period, the impact of the Reformation on Jewish life, the emergence of new attitudes to Jews in early modern Europe, the breakdown of traditional authority, and the impact of secularization. It will deal with the following transformative events: the rise of eastern European Jewry, the spread of kabbalah, Hassidism, Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah), emancipation, modern antisemitism, nineteenth-century Jewish nationalism, Jews in the Muslim world, the development of American Jewry, the Holocaust, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the Arab-Israeli conflict.

J S 311 • Roots Of Religious Toleration

40205 • Spring 2013
Meets MW 330pm-500pm CBA 4.344
(also listed as CTI 310, EUS 306, HIS 317N, R S 306 )
show description

Throughout the medieval period, religious conformity was enforced by religious authorities in Christian, Jewish, and Islamic societies alike, though with differing degrees of coercion. But in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, a fundamental revision of thinking about religious difference began to take root. This course will examine how think about freedom of conscience and religion crystallized in western and central Europe, both as a pragmatic practice and as a matter of principle. We will consider the following questions: What were the psychological and theological obstacles to accepting the practice of toleration, and why were they so powerful (as they still are in some societies)? What social conditions and patterns of thinking led to the emergence of a principle of toleration? How did this principle become embedded in western legal systems? And how did quite different models of religious toleration emerge in different places?

 

Grading

Three exams (together, 60% of the grade),

Three 3-5 page exercises (together, 30% of the grade).

Attendance and participation will account for 10% of the grade.

 

Texts (subject to change)

 

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, in Edward Peters, ed., Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe, 182-3.3.   

Bernard Gui, Heresies of the High Middle Ages

Judaism.Ruether, Rosemary Ruether, "The Adversus Judaeos Tradition in the Church Fathers" in Jeremy Cohen, ed., Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict

Lester Little, “The Jews in Christian Europe,” in Jeremy Cohen, ed., Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict

R.I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society

R. Po-Chia Hsia, from “Introduction” to Hsia, ed., A Companion to the Reformation World, xii-xv.11.

Bagchi and Steinmetz, eds., Reformation Theology

Bob Scribner, “Heterodoxy, literacy and print in the early German Reformation,”in Biller and Hudson, eds., Heresy and Literacy

Carlo Ginzburg, “The High and the Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Clues, Myths, and the Historical Method

Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic

Jonathan Israel, Radical Enlightenment

Judith Pollmann, “The Bond of Christian Piety: The Individual Practice ofTolerance in the Dutch Republic,” in Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age

Miriam Bodian, “Jews in a Divided Christendom,” Blackwell Companion to the Reformation.26.   

Sebastian Castellio.Castellio, excerpts from Counsel to France in her distress (1562)

Michel de Montaigne.From Apology for Raymond Sebond (1580)

Jean Bodin, Colloquium of the Seven about Secrets of the Sublime (1588)

Dirck Volckertsz, Coornhert Synod on the Freedom of Conscience (1582)

Benedict Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670)

John Locke, From A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689)

Voltaire, “On Toleration in Connection with the Death of Jean Calas” (1763)

Christian Wilhelm Dohm, “On the Civil Improvement of the Jews” (1781)

Michael Walzer, On Toleration

J S 364 • The Church And The Jews

40080 • Fall 2012
Meets TTH 930am-1100am WAG 101
(also listed as EUS 346, HIS 362G, R S 357 )
show description

This course will examine the complex relationship between the Western Church and the Jews over two millenia. How did theological ideas about the Jews crystallize in the early centuries? How were they expressed in legal and social terms in the centuries that followed? How did economic and social realities dovetail with theology to produce the extreme persecutions of the Jews in the late medieval period? What led to the striking changes in Christian attitudes to Jews in from the post-Reformation period to the present? We will analyze relevant documents and images, emphasizing how theological positions both created and responded to the socio-economic roles of Jews.

 

Required to purchase:

 

Revised Standard Version of the Bible (any edition)

 

The course will make used of a website designed specifically for it by the instructor. The website includes many of the readings. Other assigned readings will be posted on Blackboard.

 

Grading:

 

Class attendance and participation (10%), participation on Discussion Board (20%), two 1-3 pp. assignments (20%), mid-term exam (20%), final exam (30%).

J S 304N • Jewish Civilization: 1492-Pres

40360 • Spring 2011
Meets TTH 1100am-1230pm WAG 101
(also listed as HIS 306N, R S 313N )
show description

This half of a two-semester sequence, which can be taken independently, will survey Jewish civilization from 1492 (the year of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain) to the present. It will give students a grasp of major migrations and spiritual trends, the breakdown of traditional authority, emancipation, modern antisemitism, the rise of American Jewry, the Holocaust, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Texts

Eli Barnavi, A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People: From the Time of the Patriarchs to the Present.

Paul Mendes-Flohr and Jehuda Reinharz, eds., The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History.

Memoirs of Glueckel of Hameln.

Grading

Attendance and class participation, 10%; 3-5 page paper 10%; mid-term 30%; final exam 50%.

J S 364 • The Spanish Inquisition

39990 • Fall 2010
Meets TTH 200pm-330pm MEZ 2.102
(also listed as HIS 350L, R S 357 )
show description

THE SPANISH INQUISITION
HIS350L, JS364, RS357. Unique Number  39290.

Prof. Miriam Bodian
Fall, 2010
Tues., Thurs. Mez. 2.102, 2:00-3:30 pm

The Spanish Inquisition operated for three and a half centuries, and became one of the most notorious institutions in history. It is popularly known for its secret trials, its autos-da-fe and burnings at the stake, and its fanatical inquisitors. But why was it established? Why did it survive even when heresy seemed virtually eliminated? What purposes did it serve that allowed it to survive for so long? These are some of the issues we will explore in this course. Each student will carry out a project “tracing” one (fictitious) personality through the various phases of the inquisitorial process, from the time of arrest (or re-arrest) to the day of the sentencing. By discussing one another’s projects we will get a sense of the great diversity - in time and space, and in motives and aims - of this institution and the people who came in contact with it.

This is a writing course, and at every stage we will have objectives in mind that bear on the final writing project.  

 

Books to purchase:

Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision

Lu Ann Homza, The Spanish Inquisition, 1478-1614

 

Lectures and Readings:

1)  Aug. 26 – Introduction. The medieval inquisition and the attack on heresy: a “totalitarian” society?

Homza, pp. ix-xv.

2)  Aug. 31, Sept. 2 - The Spanish Inquisition – Why was it established?

Homza, 1-8.

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Chs. 1-2.

3)  Sept.7, 14, 16 - How did the Inquisition operate?

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Chs. 7-9.

Homza, 221-231, 257-266.

4)  Sept. 21, 23, 28 – Is the Inquisition’s reputation for corruption and abuse justified?  

Homza, 50-60.

Film: “O Judeu.”

5) Sept. 30- Oct. 4 – “Purity of Blood” and the Inquisition: A racist institution?

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Ch. 11.

6)  Oct. 7, 12 - Resisting the Inquisition

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Chs. 3-4.

Miriam Bodian, Dying in the Law of Moses, Ch. 5 (E-Reserves online).

7)    Oct. 14 – MID-TERM EXAM

8)    Oct. 19, 21 - New targets: alumbrados, “luteranos,” and witches

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Ch. 5.

Homza, 80-92; 153-163.

9)    Oct. 26 – New targets: moriscos

Kamen, Ch. 10.

Kamen and Dyer, eds., Inquisitorial Inquiries, 119-143. (E-Reserves online).

10) Oct. 28, Nov. 2 – Counter-Reformation Social Control

Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, Ch. 6, 12.

Sara Nalle, Crazy for God, Ch. 1 (E-Reserves online).

Homza, 216-220

11)  Nov. 4 – Submission of drafts of final papers and their distribution for peer review.

12)  Nov. 9 - The Enlightenment Critique of the Inquisition

              Source: From Voltaire, Candide, Ch. 4 (link on E-Reserves).

13)  Nov. 11, 16 - Decline and Abolition of the Inquisition

Edward Peters, Inquisition, pp. 99-104 (E-Reserves online).

14)  Nov. 18, 23, 30 – Student presentations of projects.

 

15)  Dec. 2 – Review and conclusions.

 

REQUIREMENTS

The grade components are as follows: class participation (10% of grade), midterm exam (20% of grade), two 3-5 page papers (20% of grade), a draft of a paper of about 20 pages (20% of grade), and a final paper (30%)..

 

The research project will involve the following. Each student will choose early in the semester, from a list of fictitious victims of the Inquisition, one “victim,” whose name, date of birth, place of residence, year of arrest, sentence, and date of sentencing will be provided. It will be the student’s task to create a history of this person’s involvement with the Inquisition, on the basis of material learned in class as well as outside reading. Your “historical” account must first and foremost be plausible, for example, in details of the arrest and interrogations. (This is not simple!) But are also encouraged to use your imagination. A number of books will be placed on reserve in the library for use in this project.

 

One aspect of the class will be peer review of each other’s work. You will be given detailed guidelines for this. This is intended to enhance your appreciation of critical thinking, good writing, and healthy collaboration.

 

All students are expected to abide by university standards of honesty and integrity. Assignments turned in after the deadline will be penalized by half a grade per day, except in unusual situations. The use of cell phones in class is not permitted, and any use of computers should be strictly for note-taking.

 

Professor Miriam Bodian

Garrison 2:104a

bodian@mail.utexas.edu

This course contains a Writing Flag.

J S 311 • Roots Of Religious Toleration

40637 • Fall 2009
Meets MWF 200pm-300pm CBA 4.348
(also listed as EUS 306, HIS 317N, R S 306 )
show description

Religious intolerance seems to be endemic in human societies. It takes different forms, ranging from subtle discrimination to mass violence. There are times when it is less intense than at others. At least as a social phenomenon, there is little chance that it will ever be eliminated.

But history shows that political and legal structures can ensure a high degree of religious freedom. These structures have been built gradually and with great effort. They have very particular roots. That is, at a certain moment in history, and in a certain geographical context, principles of religious toleration - principles that could be translated into permanent political and legal protections - were worked out. This was a momentous innovation, one that took place in Europe from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. In this course we will try to understand in historical perspective how this happened. It is a story about events in the powerful states that emerged in the Christian West in this period.

To understand the extraordinary struggles of this period, we’ll first have to understand  the basic position and practices of the western Church toward heretics and non-believers as they were formulated in the first few centuries of the Common Era and as they were elaborated in the Middle Ages. We will then turn to the events and changed perspectives of the Reformation period. Finally, we will look at the range of theoretical ideas about religious toleration proposed by European thinkers, and consider their practical implications. We’ll conclude with some reflections on the persistent problems that have arisen and still arise in the the effort to achieve religious toleration, including recent issues particular to the multiculturalism experiment.

The course, then, has a three-part structure:

Part 1: A survey of the medieval European background;
Part 2: A look at how new conditions in the Reformation period encouraged the emergence of ideas of religious toleration;
Part 3: A study of the variety of theoretical positions – then and (briefly) now.

You will take an exam after each segment of the course (together, 60% of the grade), and write a 3-5 page exercise for each of them (together, 30% of the grade). Attendance and participation will account for 10% of the grade. Plus/minus grades will be assigned, as mandated by the new policy.

1.    August 26 – What do we mean by religious freedom – or do we know what we mean?

PART 1

2.    August 28 – In the beginning there was theology (1): Christian doctrine concerning heresy.

From the article in The Catholic Encyclopedia on “heresy.”

From Thomas Aquinas, on the question of whether heresy should be tolerated, from his Summa Theologica, in Edward Peters, ed., Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe, 182-3.

3.    August 31 – The medieval Inquisition and the suppression of heresy.

From Bernard Gui on heresy, in Wakefield and Evans, eds., Heresies of the High Middle Ages, 1000-1530, 373-378, 386-404.

4.    September 2 - In the beginning there was theology (2): Christian doctrine concerning Judaism.

Ruether, Rosemary Ruether, "The Adversus Judaeos Tradition in the Church Fathers" in Jeremy Cohen, ed., Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict, 174-189.

5.    September 4 – Discrimination and violence against Jews.

Lester Little, “The Jews in Christian Europe,” in Jeremy Cohen, ed., Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict, 276-297.

SEPTEMBER 7 – NO CLASS: LABOR DAY

6.    September 9 – The papacy, the state, and late medieval persecution.

R.I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society, 1-45.

7.    September 11 – REVIEW.

8.    September 13 – EXAM.

PART 2

9.    September 16 – Early modern skepticism about the knowability of truth.

The “Story of the Three Rings” from the Decameron: Decameron, Day 1, Novel 3: online at
http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/decameronNew/DecShowText.php?myID=nov0103&expand=day01&lang=eng

10.    September 18 –  -  The Reformation: the breakdown of western Christian unity.

R. Po-Chia Hsia, from “Introduction” to Hsia, ed., A Companion to the Reformation World, xii-xv.

11.    September 21 - The Reformation: the attack on the authority of the western Church.

Bagchi and Steinmetz, eds., Reformation Theology, 42-49.

12.     September 23 - The idea of multiple paths to religious truth. From the Catholic irenicism of Erasmus to the idea of natural religion.

Erasmus, from The Complaint of Peace (1521).

13.     September 25 – The Reformation: religious wars and their fallout. Temporary pragmatic solutions: Peace of Augsburg, Union of Utrecht, Edict of Nantes.

Mout, “Limits and Debates: A Comparative View of Dutch Toleration in the 16th and 17th Centuries,” in The Emergence of Tolerance in the Dutch Republic, 37-47.

14.    September 28 – TBA.

15.    September 30 - The impact of print in the Reformation period...

Bob Scribner, “Heterodoxy, literacy and print in the early German Reformation,”
in Biller and Hudson, eds., Heresy and Literacy, 1000-1530, 255-278.

16.    October 2 – …and of censorship.

Carlo Ginzburg, “The High and the Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Clues, Myths, and the Historical Method, 60-76.

17.    October 5 - – “Disenchantment.”

Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic, 51-77.

18.    October 7 –  The impact of the discovery of new peoples. Anthropological speculation. The status of the “new” pagans.

The Travels of Fernando Mendes Pinto, 87-89.

19.    October 9 – State-building ideologies. Raison d’état, mercantilism, and toleration.

http://cojs.org/cojswiki/Overview:_Mercantilism

Menasseh ben Israel’s letter to Oliver Cromwell.

20.    October 12 –  The emergence of a non-clerical intelligentsia.

Jonathan Israel, Radical Enlightenment, 1-22.

21.    October 14 – Habituation: The everyday practice of religious toleration.

Judith Pollmann, “The Bond of Christian Piety: The Individual Practice of
Tolerance in the Dutch Republic,” in Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, 53-71.

22.     Octobor 16 – REVIEW

23.     October 19 – EXAM

PART 3

24.    October 21 –  Images of Cruelty, from John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments

http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/johnfoxe/apparatus/53_garnesey.html

http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/johnfoxe/apparatus/39_ridleylatimer.html

25.    October 23 –  Shifting attitudes about Jews in Reformation Europe.

Miriam Bodian, “Jews in a Divided Christendom,” Blackwell Companion to the Reformation.

26.    October 26 - Sebastian Castellio.

Castellio, excerpts from Counsel to France in her distress (1562).

27.    October 28 – Michel de Montaigne.

From Apology for Raymond Sebond (1580), tr. Ariew and Grene, passages on pp.127-8, 131-136, 139-141, 146-147, 152.

28.    October 30 – Jean Bodin

Colloquium of the Seven about Secrets of the Sublime (1588), 150-159.

29.    November 2 –  Dirck Volckertsz Coornhert

Synod on the Freedom of Conscience (1582), 151-162.

30.    November 2 – Benedict Spinoza

Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670), Chapter 20.

31.    November 4 – Benedict Spinoza

Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (continued).

32.    November 6 – John Locke

From A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689).

33.    November 9 – John Locke

A Letter Concerning Toleration (continued).

34.    November 11 – The Calas Affair

From Voltaire, “On Toleration in Connection with the Death of Jean Calas” (1763).

35.    November 13 – Dohm on the Status of Jews

From Christian Wilhelm Dohm, “On the Civil Improvement of the Jews” (1781).

36.    November 16 – The French Revolutionary Period and the Status of Jews

From the debate on the Status of the Jews in the French National Assembly.

Napoleon and the Assembly of Notables.

37.    November 18 – The American Experiment

Jefferson’s draft of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

38.    November 20 – Religious Toleration in Historical and Cultural Context

Michael Walzer, On Toleration, 2-13.

39.    November 23 – Religious Toleration in Context (continued).

Walzer, On Toleration, 14-36.

40.    November 25 – Walzer, On Toleration, 66-82.

November 27 – No class – Thanksgiving holiday

41.    November 30 – Walzer, On Toleration, 83-112.

42.    December 2 – REVIEW

43.    December 4 –FINAL EXAM

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